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Plants 2017, 6(3), 40; doi:10.3390/plants6030040

Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata)

1
Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Microbiología y Biología Celular, Caracas 1020-A, Venezuela
2
Laboratorio de VirologíaVegetal, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay 1050,Venezuela
3
Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turku 20500, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract

The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO3 (N)—prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens—were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO3. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acid; Cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus; Cowpea mild mottle carlavirus; root nodulation; ureides amino acid; Cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus; Cowpea mild mottle carlavirus; root nodulation; ureides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Izaguirre-Mayoral, M.L.; Brito, M.; Baral, B.; Garrido, M.J. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata). Plants 2017, 6, 40.

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