Next Article in Journal
Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae) in Wild Populations of Canada
Next Article in Special Issue
The Role of Flavonoids in Nodulation Host-Range Specificity: An Update
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Flavones: From Biosynthesis to Health Benefits
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Plants 2016, 5(2), 28; doi:10.3390/plants5020028

The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule

Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Straße 8, 07745 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ulrike Mathesius
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Flavonoids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2267 KB, uploaded 22 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Flavonoids play an important role in the pigmentation of flowers; in addition, they protect petals and other flower parts from UV irradiation and oxidative stress. Nudicaulins, flavonoid-derived indole alkaloids, along with pelargonidin, kaempferol, and gossypetin glycosides, are responsible for the color of white, red, orange, and yellow petals of different Papaver nudicaule cultivars. The color of the petals is essential to attract pollinators. We investigated the occurrence of flavonoids in basal and apical petal areas, stamens, and capsules of four differently colored P. nudicaule cultivars by means of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The results reveal the specific occurrence of gossypetin glycosides in the basal spot of all cultivars and demonstrate that kaempferol glycosides are the major secondary metabolites in the capsules. Unlike previous reports, the yellow-colored stamens of all four P. nudicaule cultivars are shown to contain not nudicaulins but carotenoids. In addition, the presence of nudicaulins, pelargonidin, and kaempferol glycosides in the apical petal area was confirmed. The flavonoids and related compounds in the investigated flower parts and cultivars of P. nudicaule are profiled, and their potential ecological role is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: flower pigmentation; flavonoids; kaempferol; pelargonidin; nudicaulins; Papaver nudicaule flower pigmentation; flavonoids; kaempferol; pelargonidin; nudicaulins; Papaver nudicaule
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dudek, B.; Warskulat, A.-C.; Schneider, B. The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule. Plants 2016, 5, 28.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top