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Plants 2015, 4(3), 678-690; doi:10.3390/plants4030678

Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest

1
Climate Science Department, Earth Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd, building 74, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2
Department of Geography, University of California Berkeley, 507 McCone Hall #4740, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
3
National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), Ave. Andre Araujo 2936, Campus II, Building LBA, Manaus, AM 69.080-97, Brazil
4
Department of Neurobiology, The Barrow Neurological Institute, Saint Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, 350 W Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA
5
Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187 Sao Paulo SP 05508-900, Brazil
6
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
7
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salma Balazadeh
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 28 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Senescence)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [830 KB, uploaded 15 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C5 and C6 GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C6 GLVs) were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: leaf temperatures; drought; tree mortality; abiotic stress; green leaf volatiles leaf temperatures; drought; tree mortality; abiotic stress; green leaf volatiles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jardine, K.J.; Chambers, J.Q.; Holm, J.; Jardine, A.B.; Fontes, C.G.; Zorzanelli, R.F.; Meyers, K.T.; de Souza, V.F.; Garcia, S.; Gimenez, B.O.; Piva, L.R.O.; Higuchi, N.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S.; Manzi, A.O. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest. Plants 2015, 4, 678-690.

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