Next Article in Journal
Ensuring Reproduction at High Temperatures: The Heat Stress Response during Anther and Pollen Development
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Self-Affinity, Self-Similarity and Disturbance of Soil Seed Banks by Tillage
Plants 2013, 2(3), 473-488; doi:10.3390/plants2030473
Article

Network Connectance Analysis as a Tool to Understand Homeostasis of Plants under Environmental Changes

1,2
, 1
 and 1,*
Received: 10 May 2013; in revised form: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 10 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex System Theory Applied to Plant Sciences)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [484 KB, uploaded 10 July 2013]
Abstract: The homeostasis of plants under environmental constraints may be maintained by alterations in the organization of their physiological networks. The ability to control a network depends on the strength of the connections between network elements, which is called network connectance. Herein, we intend to provide more evidence on the existence of a modulation pattern of photosynthetic networks, in response to adverse environmental conditions. Two species (Glycine max-C3 metabolism, and Brachiaria brizantha-C4 metabolism) were submitted to two environmental constraints (water availability, and high and low temperatures), and from the physiological parameters measured, the global connectance (Cgtotal) and the modules connectance (gas exchange-Cgge and photochemical-Cgpho) were analyzed. Both types of environmental constraints impaired the photosynthetic capacity and the growth of the plants, indicating loss of their homeostasis, but in different ways. The results showed that in general the Cgtotal of both species increased with temperature increment and water deficit, indicating a higher modulation of photosynthetic networks. However, the Cg variation in both species did not influence the total dry biomass that was reduced by environmental adversities. This outcome is probably associated with a loss of system homeostasis. The connectance network analyses indicated a possible lack of correspondence between the photosynthetic networks modulation patterns and the homeostasis loss. However, this kind of analysis can be a powerful tool to access the degree of stability of a biological system, as well as to allow greater understanding of the dynamics underlying the photosynthetic processes that maintain the identity of the systems under environmental adversities.
Keywords: network connectance; physiological network; stability; water deficit; low and high temperature; C3 and C4 photosynthetic type metabolisms network connectance; physiological network; stability; water deficit; low and high temperature; C3 and C4 photosynthetic type metabolisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Bertolli, S.C.; Vítolo, H.F.; Souza, G.M. Network Connectance Analysis as a Tool to Understand Homeostasis of Plants under Environmental Changes. Plants 2013, 2, 473-488.

AMA Style

Bertolli SC, Vítolo HF, Souza GM. Network Connectance Analysis as a Tool to Understand Homeostasis of Plants under Environmental Changes. Plants. 2013; 2(3):473-488.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bertolli, Suzana C.; Vítolo, Hilton F.; Souza, Gustavo M. 2013. "Network Connectance Analysis as a Tool to Understand Homeostasis of Plants under Environmental Changes." Plants 2, no. 3: 473-488.


Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert