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J. Dev. Biol. 2015, 3(4), 93-111; doi:10.3390/jdb3040093

Pbx4 is Required for the Temporal Onset of Zebrafish Myocardial Differentiation

1
Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, 1900 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
2
Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robert W. Dettman and Andy Wessels
Received: 26 September 2015 / Revised: 24 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Fate Decisions in Development and Disease)
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Abstract

Proper control of the temporal onset of cellular differentiation is critical for regulating cell lineage decisions and morphogenesis during development. Pbx homeodomain transcription factors have emerged as important regulators of cellular differentiation. We previously showed, by using antisense morpholino knockdown, that Pbx factors are needed for the timely activation of myocardial differentiation in zebrafish. In order to gain further insight into the roles of Pbx factors in heart development, we show here that zebrafish pbx4 mutant embryos exhibit delayed onset of myocardial differentiation, such as delayed activation of tnnt2a expression in early cardiomyocytes in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm. We also observe delayed myocardial morphogenesis and dysmorphic patterning of the ventricle and atrium, consistent with our previous Pbx knock-down studies. In addition, we find that pbx4 mutant larvae have aberrant outflow tracts and defective expression of the proepicardial marker tbx18. Finally, we present evidence for Pbx expression in cardiomyocyte precursors as well as heterogeneous Pbx expression among the pan-cytokeratin-expressing proepicardial cells near the developing ventricle. In summary, our data show that Pbx4 is required for the proper temporal activation of myocardial differentiation and establish a basis for studying additional roles of Pbx factors in heart development. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiomyocyte; differentiation; myocardial morphogenesis; outflow tract; proepicardium; zebrafish; pbx4 cardiomyocyte; differentiation; myocardial morphogenesis; outflow tract; proepicardium; zebrafish; pbx4
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kao, R.M.; Rurik, J.G.; III, G.H.F.; Dong, X.R.; Majesky, M.W.; Maves, L. Pbx4 is Required for the Temporal Onset of Zebrafish Myocardial Differentiation. J. Dev. Biol. 2015, 3, 93-111.

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J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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