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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(7), 118; doi:10.3390/ijgi5070118

How Do Vegetation Density and Transportation Network Density Affect Crime across an Urban Central-Peripheral Gradient? A Case Study in Kitchener—Waterloo, Ontario

1,* and 2,3
1
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
2
School of Planning, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
3
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marco Helbich, Michael Leitner and Wolfgang Kainz
Received: 23 May 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Spatial and Spatiotemporal Crime Analytics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3550 KB, uploaded 15 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

The relationship between vegetation, transportation networks, and crime has been under debate. Vegetation has been positively correlated with fear of crime; however, the actual correlation between vegetation and occurrences of crime is uncertain. Transportation networks have also been connected with crime occurrence but their impact on crime tends to vary over different circumstances. By conducting spatial analyses, this study explores the associations between crime and vegetation as well as transportation networks in Kitchener-Waterloo. Further, geographically weighted regression modeling and a dummy urban variable representing the urban center/other urban areas were employed to explore the associations across an urban central-peripheral gradient. Associations were analyzed for crimes against persons and crimes against property for four specific crime types (assaults, vehicle theft, sex offences, and drugs). Results suggest that vegetation has a reverse association with crimes against persons and crimes against property while transportation networks have a positive relationship with these two types of crime. Additionally, vegetation can be a deterrent to vehicle theft crime and drugs, while transportation networks can be a facilitator of drug-related crimes. Besides, these two associations appear stronger in the urban center compared to the urban periphery. View Full-Text
Keywords: crime; vegetation; transportation networks; spatial analysis; urban planning crime; vegetation; transportation networks; spatial analysis; urban planning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Du, Y.; Law, J. How Do Vegetation Density and Transportation Network Density Affect Crime across an Urban Central-Peripheral Gradient? A Case Study in Kitchener—Waterloo, Ontario. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5, 118.

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