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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 908-1168

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Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial The Rise of Collaborative Mapping: Trends and Future Directions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 955-958; doi:10.3390/ijgi2040955
Received: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (87 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The nature of map production and the dissemination of spatially referenced information have changed radically over the last decade. This change has been marked by an explosion of user generated spatial content via Web 2.0, access to a rising tide of big data
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The nature of map production and the dissemination of spatially referenced information have changed radically over the last decade. This change has been marked by an explosion of user generated spatial content via Web 2.0, access to a rising tide of big data streams from remotely-sensed and public data archives, and the use of mobile phones and other sensors as mapping devices. All of these developments have facilitated a much wider use of geodata, transforming ordinary citizens into neogeographers. This increase in user-generated content has resulted in a blurring of the boundaries between the traditional map producer, i.e., national mapping agencies and local authorities, and citizens as consumers of this information. Citizens now take an active role in mapping different types of features on the Earth’s surface as volunteers, either by providing observations on the ground or tracing data from other sources, such as aerial photographs or satellite imagery. OpenStreetMap (OSM) and Ushahidi are two well-known examples of a growing collection of collaborative mapping communities that are building rich spatial datasets, which are openly accessible. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Mapping)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle A Self-Contained and Self-Checking LPS with High Accuracy
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 908-934; doi:10.3390/ijgi2040908
Received: 28 July 2013 / Revised: 16 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are many situations in which it is desirable to use a Local Positioning System (LPS), which constitutes a complete and independent unit, offers high accuracy and in addition is economical to realize. This paper describes the LPS LOSNUS (Localization of Sensor Nodes
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There are many situations in which it is desirable to use a Local Positioning System (LPS), which constitutes a complete and independent unit, offers high accuracy and in addition is economical to realize. This paper describes the LPS LOSNUS (Localization of Sensor Nodes by Ultra Sound). LOSNUS is a complete and independent LPS where the same system can be used for localization and calibration. Primarily designed for locating numerous quasi-static devices, special care of system construction has taken on costly factors, especially in the construction of the infrastructure and of sensor nodes where locating can be realized with minimal additional hardware costs. LOSNUS enables a calibration process without the need of additional expensive tools and/or laborious time in order to get accurate positions of transmitters. As a result, LOSNUS delivers high locating accuracy at medium update rates, and in case of sufficient number of transmitters can also tolerate single failures in the Time of Arrival (ToA) measurement, allowing arbitrary failure modes. In this article, the system is presented starting from design, realization and algorithms of localization and calibration. Finally, new measurement results are showing the high accuracy of localization based on a discussion of the applied uncertainty description. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation)
Open AccessArticle Integrating Open Access Geospatial Data to Map the Habitat Suitability of the Declining Corn Bunting (Miliaria calandra)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 935-954; doi:10.3390/ijgi2040935
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficacy of integrating open access geospatial data to produce habitat suitability maps for the corn bunting (Miliaria calandra) was investigated. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Corine (Coordination of Information on the Environment) land
[...] Read more.
The efficacy of integrating open access geospatial data to produce habitat suitability maps for the corn bunting (Miliaria calandra) was investigated. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Corine (Coordination of Information on the Environment) land cover data for the year 2000 (CLC2000) were processed to extract explanatory variables and divided into three sets; Satellite (ETM+, SRTM), CLC2000 and Combined (CLC2000 + Satellite). Presence-absence data for M. calandra, collected during structured surveys for the Catalan Breeding Bird Atlas, were provided by the Catalan Ornithological Institute. The dataset was partitioned into an equal number of presence and absence points by dividing it into five groups, each composed of 88 randomly selected presence points to match the number of absences. A logistic regression model was then built for each group. Models were evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Results of the five groups were averaged to produce mean Satellite, CLC2000 and Combined models. The mean AUC values were 0.69, 0.81 and 0.90 for the CLC2000, Satellite and the Combined model, respectively. The probability of M. calandra presence had the strongest positive correlation with land surface temperature, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, coefficient of variation for ETM+ band 5 and the fraction of non-irrigated arable land. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simplified Occupancy Grid Indoor Mapping Optimized for Low-Cost Robots
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 959-977; doi:10.3390/ijgi2040959
Received: 24 July 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a mapping system that is suitable for small mobile robots. An ad hoc algorithm for mapping based on the Occupancy Grid method has been developed. The algorithm includes some simplifications in order to be used with low-cost hardware resources. The
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This paper presents a mapping system that is suitable for small mobile robots. An ad hoc algorithm for mapping based on the Occupancy Grid method has been developed. The algorithm includes some simplifications in order to be used with low-cost hardware resources. The proposed mapping system has been built in order to be completely autonomous and unassisted. The proposal has been tested with a mobile robot that uses infrared sensors to measure distances to obstacles and uses an ultrasonic beacon system for localization, besides wheel encoders. Finally, experimental results are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation)
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Open AccessArticle Forecast-Driven Enhancement of Received Signal Strength (RSS)-Based Localization Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 978-995; doi:10.3390/ijgi2040978
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Real-time user localization in indoor environments is an important issue in ambient assisted living (AAL). In this context, localization based on received signal strength (RSS) has received considerable interest in the recent literature, due to its low cost and energy consumption and to
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Real-time user localization in indoor environments is an important issue in ambient assisted living (AAL). In this context, localization based on received signal strength (RSS) has received considerable interest in the recent literature, due to its low cost and energy consumption and to its availability on all wireless communication hardware. On the other hand, the RSS-based localization is characterized by a greater error with respect to other technologies. Restricting the problem to localization of AAL users in indoor environments, we demonstrate that forecasting with a little user movement advance (for example, when the user is about to leave a room) provides significant benefits to the accuracy of RSS-based localization systems. Specifically, we exploit echo state networks (ESNs) fed with RSS measurements and trained to recognize patterns of user’s movements to feed back to the RSS-based localization system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation)
Open AccessArticle Using the Hierarchical Pathfinding A* Algorithm in GIS to Find Paths through Rasters with Nonuniform Traversal Cost
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 996-1014; doi:10.3390/ijgi2040996
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 7 October 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A fair amount of research has been carried out on pathfinding problems in the context of transportation networks, whereas pathfinding in off-network space has received far less interest. In geographic information systems (GIS), the latter is usually associated with the cost surface method,
[...] Read more.
A fair amount of research has been carried out on pathfinding problems in the context of transportation networks, whereas pathfinding in off-network space has received far less interest. In geographic information systems (GIS), the latter is usually associated with the cost surface method, which allows optimum paths to be calculated through rasters in which the value of each cell depicts the cost of traversal through that cell. One of the problems with this method is computational expense, which may be very high with large rasters. In this study, a pathfinding method called Hierarchical Pathfinding A* (HPA*), based on an abstraction strategy, is investigated as an alternative to the traditional approach. The aim of this study is to enhance the method to make it more suitable for calculating paths over cost rasters with nonuniform traversal cost. The method is implemented in GIS and tested with actual data. The results indicate that by taking into account the information embedded in the cost raster, paths of relatively good quality can be calculated while effecting significant savings in computational effort compared to the traditional, nonhierarchical approach. Full article
Open AccessArticle User Experience Design in Professional Map-Based Geo-Portals
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 1015-1037; doi:10.3390/ijgi2041015
Received: 30 August 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have recently been witnessing the growing establishment of map-centered web-based geo-portals on national, regional and local levels. However, a particular issue with these geo-portals is that each instance has been implemented in different ways in terms of design, usability, functionality, interaction possibilities,
[...] Read more.
We have recently been witnessing the growing establishment of map-centered web-based geo-portals on national, regional and local levels. However, a particular issue with these geo-portals is that each instance has been implemented in different ways in terms of design, usability, functionality, interaction possibilities, map size and symbologies. In this paper, we try to tackle these shortcomings by analyzing and formalizing the requirements for map-based geo-portals in a user experience based approach. First, we propose a holistic definition the term of a “geo-portal”. Then, we present our approach to user experience design for map-based geo-portals by defining the functional requirements of a geo-portal, by analyzing previous geo-portal developments, by distilling the results of our empirical user study to perform practically-oriented user requirements, and finally by establishing a set of user experience design guidelines for the creation of map-based geo-portals. These design guidelines have been extracted for each of the main components of a geo-portal, i.e., the map, the search dialogue, the presentation of the search results, symbologies, and other aspects. These guidelines shall constitute the basis for future geo-portal developments to achieve standardization in the user-experience design of map-based geo-portals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Georeferenced Point Clouds: A Survey of Features and Point Cloud Management
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 1038-1065; doi:10.3390/ijgi2041038
Received: 25 August 2013 / Revised: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (5470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a survey of georeferenced point clouds. Concentration is, on the one hand, put on features, which originate in the measurement process themselves, and features derived by processing the point cloud. On the other hand, approaches for the processing of georeferenced
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This paper presents a survey of georeferenced point clouds. Concentration is, on the one hand, put on features, which originate in the measurement process themselves, and features derived by processing the point cloud. On the other hand, approaches for the processing of georeferenced point clouds are reviewed. This includes the data structures, but also spatial processing concepts. We suggest a categorization of features into levels that reflect the amount of processing. Point clouds are found across many disciplines, which is reflected in the versatility of the literature suggesting specific features. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measuring Completeness of Building Footprints in OpenStreetMap over Space and Time
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 1066-1091; doi:10.3390/ijgi2041066
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to financial or administrative constraints, access to official spatial base data is currently limited to a small subset of all potential users in the field of spatial planning and research. This increases the usefulness of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), in particular OpenStreetMap
[...] Read more.
Due to financial or administrative constraints, access to official spatial base data is currently limited to a small subset of all potential users in the field of spatial planning and research. This increases the usefulness of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), in particular OpenStreetMap (OSM), as supplementary datasets or, in some cases, alternative sources of primary data. In contrast to the OSM street network, which has already been thoroughly investigated and found to be practically complete in many areas, the degree of completeness of OSM data on buildings is still unclear. In this paper we describe methods to analyze building completeness and apply these to various test areas in Germany. Official data from national mapping and cadastral agencies is used as a basis for comparison. The results show that unit-based completeness measurements (e.g., total number or area of buildings) are highly sensitive to disparities in modeling between official data and VGI. Therefore, we recommend object-based methods to study the completeness of OSM building footprint data. An analysis from November 2011 in Germany indicated a completeness of 25% in the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia and 15% in Saxony. Although further analyses from 2012 confirm that data completeness in Saxony has risen to 23%, the rate of new data input was slowing in the year 2012. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mapping Ontario’s Wind Turbines: Challenges and Limitations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 1092-1105; doi:10.3390/ijgi2041092
Received: 20 September 2013 / Revised: 19 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite rapid and vast development of wind turbines across the Canadian province of Ontario, there is no map available indicating the location of each wind turbine. A map of this nature is crucial for health and environmental risk research and has many applications
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Despite rapid and vast development of wind turbines across the Canadian province of Ontario, there is no map available indicating the location of each wind turbine. A map of this nature is crucial for health and environmental risk research and has many applications in other fields. Research examining health and wind turbines is limited by the available maps showing the nearest community to a wind farm as opposed to each unique wind turbine. Data from provincial-level organizations, developers, and municipalities were collected using government development approval documents, planning documents, and data given directly from municipalities and developers. Wind turbines were mapped using Google Earth, coordinate lists, shapefiles, and translating data from other maps. In total, 1,420 wind turbines were mapped from 56 wind farms. The limitations of each data source and mapping method are discussed. There are numerous challenges in creating a map of this nature, for example incorrect inclusion of wind farms and inaccuracies in wind turbine locations. The resultant map is the first of its kind to be discussed in the literature, can be used for a variety of health and environmental risk studies to assess dose-response, wind turbine density, visibility, and to create sound and vibration models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS in Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Occurrence Modeling of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1: A Case Study in the Red River Delta, Vietnam
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 1106-1121; doi:10.3390/ijgi2041106
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (897 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 poses severe threats to both animals and humans. Investigating where, when and why the disease occurs is important to help animal health authorities develop effective control policies. This study takes into account spatial and temporal occurrence
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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 poses severe threats to both animals and humans. Investigating where, when and why the disease occurs is important to help animal health authorities develop effective control policies. This study takes into account spatial and temporal occurrence of HPAI H5N1 in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. A two-stage procedure was used: (1) logistic regression modeling to identify and quantify factors influencing the occurrence of HPAI H5N1; and (2) a geostatistical approach to develop monthly predictive maps. The results demonstrated that higher average monthly temperatures and poultry density in combination with lower average monthly precipitation, humidity in low elevation areas, roughly from November to January and April to June, contribute to the higher occurrence of HPAI H5N1. Provinces near the Gulf of Tonkin, including Hai Phong, Hai Duong, Thai Binh, Nam Dinh and Ninh Binh are areas with higher probability of occurrence of HPAI H5N1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS in Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Low Power 24 GHz ad hoc Networking System Based on TDOA for Indoor Localization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 1122-1135; doi:10.3390/ijgi2041122
Received: 13 October 2013 / Revised: 15 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces the key elements of a novel low-power, high precision localization system based on Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) distance measurements. The combination of multiple localizable sensor nodes, leads to an ad hoc network. Besides the localization functionality this ad hoc network has the
[...] Read more.
This paper introduces the key elements of a novel low-power, high precision localization system based on Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) distance measurements. The combination of multiple localizable sensor nodes, leads to an ad hoc network. Besides the localization functionality this ad hoc network has the additional advantage of a communication interface. Due to this a flexible positioning of the master station for information collection and the detection of static and mobile nodes is possible. These sensor nodes work in the 24 GHz ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical) frequency range and address several use cases and are able to improve various processes for production scheduling, logistics, quality management, medical applications and collection of geo information. The whole system design is explained briefly. Its core component is the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) synthesizer suitable for high performance indoor localization. This research work focuses on power and size reduction of this crucial system component. The comparison of the first and second generation of the system shows a significant size and power reduction as well as an increased precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation)
Open AccessArticle Drainage Structure Datasets and Effects on LiDAR-Derived Surface Flow Modeling
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 1136-1152; doi:10.3390/ijgi2041136
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With extraordinary resolution and accuracy, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) have been increasingly used for watershed analyses and modeling by hydrologists, planners and engineers. Such high-accuracy DEMs have demonstrated their effectiveness in delineating watershed and drainage patterns at fine
[...] Read more.
With extraordinary resolution and accuracy, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) have been increasingly used for watershed analyses and modeling by hydrologists, planners and engineers. Such high-accuracy DEMs have demonstrated their effectiveness in delineating watershed and drainage patterns at fine scales in low-relief terrains. However, these high-resolution datasets are usually only available as topographic DEMs rather than hydrologic DEMs, presenting greater land roughness that can affect natural flow accumulation. Specifically, locations of drainage structures such as road culverts and bridges were simulated as barriers to the passage of drainage. This paper proposed a geospatial method for producing LiDAR-derived hydrologic DEMs, which incorporates data collection of drainage structures (i.e., culverts and bridges), data preprocessing and burning of the drainage structures into DEMs. A case study of GIS-based watershed modeling in South Central Nebraska showed improved simulated surface water derivatives after the drainage structures were burned into the LiDAR-derived topographic DEMs. The paper culminates in a proposal and discussion of establishing a national or statewide drainage structure dataset. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimizing the Use of Secchi Depth as a Proxy for Euphotic Depth in Coastal Waters: An Empirical Study from the Baltic Sea
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(4), 1153-1168; doi:10.3390/ijgi2041153
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 5 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 9 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Potential zone for photosynthesis in natural waters is restricted to a relatively thin illuminated surface water layer. The thickness of this layer is often indirectly estimated by measuring the depth in which 1% of the photosynthetically active radiation entering the water remains. This
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Potential zone for photosynthesis in natural waters is restricted to a relatively thin illuminated surface water layer. The thickness of this layer is often indirectly estimated by measuring the depth in which 1% of the photosynthetically active radiation entering the water remains. This depth is referred to as the euphotic depth. A coarser way to evaluate the underwater light penetration is to measure the Secchi depth, which is a visual measure of water transparency. The numerical relationship between these two optical parameters, i.e., conversion coefficient m, varies according to the changes in the optical properties of water, especially in transitional coastal waters. The aim of our study is to assess which is the most suitable criterion to base these coefficients on. We tested nine methods, seven of which were locally calibrated with our own in situ data from the optically heterogeneous Baltic Sea archipelago coast of SW Finland. We managed to significantly improve the accuracy of modeling euphotic depths from Secchi depths by using scalable and locally calibrated methods instead of a single fixed coefficient. The best results were achieved by using methods, either continuous functions or series of constants, which are based on water transparency values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal GIS)

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