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Illumination Tolerance for Visual Navigation with the Holistic Min-Warping Method
Computer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld D-33594, Germany
Center of Excellence "Cognitive Interaction Technology", Bielefeld University, Bielefeld D-33594, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2013; in revised form: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 13 February 2014
Abstract: Holistic visual navigation methods are an emerging alternative to the ubiquitous feature-based methods. Holistic methods match entire images pixel-wise instead of extracting and comparing local feature descriptors. In this paper we investigate which pixel-wise distance measures are most suitable for the holistic min-warping method with respect to illumination invariance. Two novel approaches are presented: tunable distance measures—weighted combinations of illumination-invariant and illumination-sensitive terms—and two novel forms of “sequential” correlation which are only invariant against intensity shifts but not against multiplicative changes. Navigation experiments on indoor image databases collected at the same locations but under different conditions of illumination demonstrate that tunable distance measures perform optimally by mixing their two portions instead of using the illumination-invariant term alone. Sequential correlation performs best among all tested methods, and as well but much faster in an approximated form. Mixing with an additional illumination-sensitive term is not necessary for sequential correlation. We show that min-warping with approximated sequential correlation can successfully be applied to visual navigation of cleaning robots.
Keywords: visual robot navigation; image distance function; correlation
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Möller, R.; Horst, M.; Fleer, D. Illumination Tolerance for Visual Navigation with the Holistic Min-Warping Method. Robotics 2014, 3, 22-67.
Möller R, Horst M, Fleer D. Illumination Tolerance for Visual Navigation with the Holistic Min-Warping Method. Robotics. 2014; 3(1):22-67.
Möller, Ralf; Horst, Michael; Fleer, David. 2014. "Illumination Tolerance for Visual Navigation with the Holistic Min-Warping Method." Robotics 3, no. 1: 22-67.