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Biomolecules 2017, 7(3), 53; doi:10.3390/biom7030053

MYC-Driven Pathways in Breast Cancer Subtypes

Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
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Academic Editor: Jürg Bähler
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract

The transcription factor MYC (MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor) is an essential signaling hub in multiple cellular processes that sustain growth of many types of cancers. MYC regulates expression of RNA, both protein and non-coding, that control central metabolic pathways, cell death, proliferation, differentiation, stress pathways, and mechanisms of drug resistance. Activation of MYC has been widely reported in breast cancer progression. Breast cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease and treatment options are primarily guided by histological and biochemical evaluations of the tumors. Based on biochemical markers, three main breast cancer categories are ER+ (estrogen receptor alpha positive), HER2+ (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive), and TNBC (triple-negative breast cancer; estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, HER2 negative). MYC is elevated in TNBC compared with other cancer subtypes. Interestingly, MYC-driven pathways are further elevated in aggressive breast cancer cells and tumors that display drug resistant phenotype. Identification of MYC target genes is essential in isolating signaling pathways that drive tumor development. In this review, we address the role of MYC in the three major breast cancer subtypes and highlight the most promising leads to target MYC functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; ER; HER2; TNBC; drug resistance breast cancer; ER; HER2; TNBC; drug resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fallah, Y.; Brundage, J.; Allegakoen, P.; Shajahan-Haq, A.N. MYC-Driven Pathways in Breast Cancer Subtypes. Biomolecules 2017, 7, 53.

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