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Biomolecules 2017, 7(3), 49; doi:10.3390/biom7030049

Mutations in Cancer Cause Gain of Cysteine, Histidine, and Tryptophan at the Expense of a Net Loss of Arginine on the Proteome Level

1
Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, S171 21, Sweden
2
Department of Medical, Bioorganic and Biological Chemistry, Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, 36011, Ukraine
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianluca Tell
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract

Accumulation of somatic mutations is critical for the transition of a normal cell to become cancerous. Mutations cause amino acid substitutions that change properties of proteins. However, it has not been studied as to what extent the composition and accordingly chemical properties of the cell proteome is altered as a result of the increased mutation load in cancer. Here, we analyzed data on amino acid substitutions caused by mutations in about 2000 protein coding genes from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia that contains information on nucleotide and amino acid alterations in 782 cancer cell lines, and validated the analysis with information on amino acid substitutions for the same set of proteins in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC; v78) in circa 18,000 tumor samples. We found that nonsynonymous single nucleotide substitutions in the analyzed proteome subset ultimately result in a net gain of cysteine, histidine, and tryptophan at the expense of a net loss of arginine. The extraordinary loss of arginine may be attributed to some extent to composition of its codons as well as to the importance of arginine in the functioning of prominent tumor suppressor proteins like p53. View Full-Text
Keywords: mutations in cancer; amino acid substitutions; somatic evolution; arginine mutations in cancer; amino acid substitutions; somatic evolution; arginine
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Tsuber, V.; Kadamov, Y.; Brautigam, L.; Berglund, U.W.; Helleday, T. Mutations in Cancer Cause Gain of Cysteine, Histidine, and Tryptophan at the Expense of a Net Loss of Arginine on the Proteome Level. Biomolecules 2017, 7, 49.

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