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Biomolecules 2017, 7(2), 34; doi:10.3390/biom7020034

The Process and Regulatory Components of Inflammation in Brain Oncogenesis

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Cancer Biology Center, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1406 S. Coulter St., Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
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Academic Editors: Gerda Egger and Melanie R. Hassler
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Methylation and Cancer)
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Abstract

Central nervous system tumors comprising the primary cancers and brain metastases remain the most lethal neoplasms and challenging to treat. Substantial evidence points to a paramount role for inflammation in the pathology leading to gliomagenesis, malignant progression and tumor aggressiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. This review summarizes the salient contributions of oxidative stress, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenases, and transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and the associated cross-talks to the inflammatory signaling in CNS cancers. The roles of reactive astrocytes, tumor associated microglia and macrophages, metabolic alterations, microsatellite instability, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) DNA repair and epigenetic alterations mediated by the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations have been discussed. The inflammatory pathways with relevance to the brain cancer treatments have been highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; gliomas; interleukins; STAT3; epigenetic deregulation; MGMT DNA repair inflammation; gliomas; interleukins; STAT3; epigenetic deregulation; MGMT DNA repair
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mostofa, A.; Punganuru, S.R.; Madala, H.R.; Al-Obaide, M.; Srivenugopal, K.S. The Process and Regulatory Components of Inflammation in Brain Oncogenesis. Biomolecules 2017, 7, 34.

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