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Biomolecules 2015, 5(4), 2643-2658; doi:10.3390/biom5042643

Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats

1
Center for Translational Biomedical Research, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
2
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Natalia Osna and Kusum Kharbanda
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Multi-Organ Alcohol-Related Damage: Mechanisms and Treatment)
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Abstract

Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; endotoxemia; inflammation; gut permeability; nicotinic acid alcohol; endotoxemia; inflammation; gut permeability; nicotinic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhong, W.; Li, Q.; Zhang, W.; Sun, Q.; Sun, X.; Zhou, Z. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 2643-2658.

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