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Biomolecules 2015, 5(3), 2023-2034; doi:10.3390/biom5032023

Alcoholic Liver Disease: Role of Cytokines

1
In Vitro Drug Safety and Biotechnology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 0A3, Canada
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 0A3, Canada
3
Division of Gastroenterology, Kaplan Health Sciences Centre, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University, Rehovot 76100, Israel
4
Israel Anti-Drug Authority, Jerusalem 91039, Israel
5
Casa de Ajutor Reciproc, Bucharest 031621, Romania
6
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 0A3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Natalia Osna and Kusum Kharbanda
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Multi-Organ Alcohol-Related Damage: Mechanisms and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [91 KB, uploaded 28 August 2015]

Abstract

The present review spans a broad spectrum of topics dealing with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including clinical and translational research. It focuses on the role of the immune system and the signaling pathways of cytokines in the pathogenesis of ALD. An additional factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which plays a central role in the induction of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. LPS derived from the intestinal microbiota enters the portal circulation, and is recognized by macrophages (Kupffer cells) and hepatocytes. In individuals with ALD, excessive levels of LPS in the liver affect immune, parenchymal, and non-immune cells, which in turn release various inflammatory cytokines and recruit neutrophils and other inflammatory cells. In this review, we elucidate the mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to the activation of Kupffer cells and the inflammatory cascade. The role of the stellate cells in fibrogenesis is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcoholic liver disease; hepatocellular carcinoma; lipopolysaccharide; transforming growth factor; Toll-like receptor; tumor necrosis factor alcoholic liver disease; hepatocellular carcinoma; lipopolysaccharide; transforming growth factor; Toll-like receptor; tumor necrosis factor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Neuman, M.G.; Maor, Y.; Nanau, R.M.; Melzer, E.; Mell, H.; Opris, M.; Cohen, L.; Malnick, S. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Role of Cytokines. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 2023-2034.

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