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Biomolecules 2015, 5(2), 617-634; doi:10.3390/biom5020617

Posttranslational Modifications and Clearing of α-Synuclein Aggregates in Yeast

1
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Genetics, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
2
Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CNMPB), D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephan N. Witt
Received: 24 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 23 April 2015
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Abstract

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an established model system to study the molecular mechanisms associated to neurodegenerative disorders. A key-feature of Parkinson’s disease is the formation of Lewy bodies, which are cytoplasmic protein inclusions. Misfolded α-synuclein is one of their main constituents. Expression of α-synuclein protein in yeast leads to protein aggregation and cellular toxicity, which is reminiscent to Lewy body containing human cells. The molecular mechanism involved in clearance of α-synuclein aggregates is a central question for elucidating the α-synuclein-related toxicity. Cellular clearance mechanisms include ubiquitin mediated 26S proteasome function as well as lysosome/vacuole associated degradative pathways as autophagy. Various modifications change α-synuclein posttranslationally and alter its inclusion formation, cytotoxicity and the distribution to different clearance pathways. Several of these modification sites are conserved from yeast to human. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the effect of phosphorylation and sumoylation of α-synuclein to the enhanced channeling to either the autophagy or the proteasome degradation pathway in yeast model of Parkinson’s disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-synuclein; Parkinson’s disease; yeast; posttranslational modifications; aggregate clearance; autophagy; proteasome α-synuclein; Parkinson’s disease; yeast; posttranslational modifications; aggregate clearance; autophagy; proteasome
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Popova, B.; Kleinknecht, A.; Braus, G.H. Posttranslational Modifications and Clearing of α-Synuclein Aggregates in Yeast. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 617-634.

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