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Biomolecules 2015, 5(1), 142-165; doi:10.3390/biom5010142

Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

1
Departamento de Biologia Celular e Genética, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro 20550-013, Brazil
2
Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael Breitenbach and Peter Eckl
Received: 12 January 2015 / Revised: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 12 February 2015 / Published: 25 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Oxygen Radicals)
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Abstract

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal pathogenesis; Candida albicans; oxidative stress; stress signaling fungal pathogenesis; Candida albicans; oxidative stress; stress signaling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dantas, A.S.; Day, A.; Ikeh, M.; Kos, I.; Achan, B.; Quinn, J. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 142-165.

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