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Role of the Checkpoint Clamp in DNA Damage Response
Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore MD 21231, USA
Received: 3 December 2012; in revised form: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Abstract: DNA damage occurs during DNA replication, spontaneous chemical reactions, and assaults by external or metabolism-derived agents. Therefore, all living cells must constantly contend with DNA damage. Cells protect themselves from these genotoxic stresses by activating the DNA damage checkpoint and DNA repair pathways. Coordination of these pathways requires tight regulation in order to prevent genomic instability. The checkpoint clamp complex consists of Rad9, Rad1 and Hus1 proteins, and is often called the 9-1-1 complex. This PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen)-like donut-shaped protein complex is a checkpoint sensor protein that is recruited to DNA damage sites during the early stage of the response, and is required for checkpoint activation. As PCNA is required for multiple pathways of DNA metabolism, the checkpoint clamp has also been implicated in direct roles in DNA repair, as well as in coordination of the pathways. Here we discuss roles of the checkpoint clamp in DNA damage response (DDR).
Keywords: DNA damage checkpoint; checkpoint clamp; DNA repair; Rad9
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kai, M. Role of the Checkpoint Clamp in DNA Damage Response. Biomolecules 2013, 3, 75-84.
Kai M. Role of the Checkpoint Clamp in DNA Damage Response. Biomolecules. 2013; 3(1):75-84.
Kai, Mihoko. 2013. "Role of the Checkpoint Clamp in DNA Damage Response." Biomolecules 3, no. 1: 75-84.