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Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) Domains Containing Intervening Motifs in Plants
Division of Biophysics, Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2012; in revised form: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 22 June 2012
Abstract: LRRs (leucine rich repeats) are present in over 14,000 proteins. Non-LRR, island regions (IRs) interrupting LRRs are widely distributed. The present article reviews 19 families of LRR proteins having non-LRR IRs (LRR@IR proteins) from various plant species. The LRR@IR proteins are LRR-containing receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), LRR-containing receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs), TONSOKU/BRUSHY1, and MJK13.7; the LRR-RLKs are homologs of TMK1/Rhg4, BRI1, PSKR, PSYR1, Arabidopsis At1g74360, and RPK2, while the LRR-RLPs are those of Cf-9/Cf-4, Cf-2/Cf-5, Ve, HcrVf, RPP27, EIX1, clavata 2, fascinated ear2, RLP2, rice Os10g0479700, and putative soybean disease resistance protein. The LRRs are intersected by single, non-LRR IRs; only the RPK2 homologs have two IRs. In most of the LRR-RLKs and LRR-RLPs, the number of repeat units in the preceding LRR block (N1) is greater than the number of the following block (N2); N1 » N2 in which N1 is variable in the homologs of individual families, while N2 is highly conserved. The five families of the LRR-RLKs except for the RPK2 family show N1 = 8 − 18 and N2 = 3 − 5. The nine families of the LRR-RLPs show N1 = 12 − 33 and N2 = 4; while N1 = 6 and N2 = 4 for the rice Os10g0479700 family and the N1 = 4 − 28 and N2 = 4 for the soybean protein family. The rule of N1 » N2 might play a common, significant role in ligand interaction, dimerization, and/or signal transduction of the LRR-RLKs and the LRR-RLPs. The structure and evolution of the LRR domains with non-LRR IRs and their proteins are also discussed.
Keywords: leucine-rich repeats; Non-LRR island; LRR-RLK; LRR-RLP; TMK1; Os10g0479700; TONSOKU/BRUSHY1; MJK13.7; ligand interaction; dimerization
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Matsushima, N.; Miyashita, H. Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) Domains Containing Intervening Motifs in Plants. Biomolecules 2012, 2, 288-311.
Matsushima N, Miyashita H. Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) Domains Containing Intervening Motifs in Plants. Biomolecules. 2012; 2(2):288-311.
Matsushima, Norio; Miyashita, Hiroki. 2012. "Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) Domains Containing Intervening Motifs in Plants." Biomolecules 2, no. 2: 288-311.