Next Article in Journal
Stark Widths of Ar II Spectral Lines in the Atmospheres of Subdwarf B Stars
Next Article in Special Issue
Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Spectrum of Singly Charged Uranium (U II) : Theoretical Interpretation of Energy Levels, Partition Function and Classified Ultraviolet Lines
Article Menu

Export Article

Atoms 2017, 5(3), 25; doi:10.3390/atoms5030025

Article
Wavelengths of the Self-Photopumped Nickel-Like 4f 1P1→4d 1P1 X-ray Laser Transitions
Elena Ivanova
Institute of spectroscopy of RAS, Physicheskaya st., 5, Troitsk, 108840 Moscow, Russia
Academic Editor: Joseph Reader
Received: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017

Abstract

:
The energies for the lower 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] and upper 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] working levels in the self-photopumped X-ray laser are analyzed along the Ni-like sequence. We have found some irregularities in these energy levels in the range Z = 42–49. The causes of the irregularities are studied. The list of elements that lase on the self-photopumped transition can be extended much further than originally known. We calculate the wavelengths of this transition in Ni-like sequence to Z = 79 using the relativistic perturbation theory with a zero approximation model potential. We estimate the wavelength accuracy for Z > 50 as Δλ/λ ≤ 0.005.
Keywords:
X-ray lasers; spectroscopy of multicharged ions; self-photo pumped lasers

1. Introduction

Self-photo pumped (SPP) X-ray lasers (XRL) in Ni-like ions were presented in 1996 [1] as an alternative approach to the standard radiative collisional scheme for inversion creation. We use the term SPP following the name given in literature. This is really a collisionally pumped laser assisted by radiation trapping. Both schemes for Ni-like ions are shown in Figure 1. This new class of SPP in Ni-like XRL was first investigated theoretically in [2], where high gain was predicted for the 4f 1P1–4d 1P1 transition in Mo14+ at 22.0 nm. It was supposed that preplasma was created by a nanosecond pulse followed by a picosecond pulse to control the temperature and density in plasma, and to achieve high gain. This wavelength was calculated using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock atomic physics code by Grant and co-workers in the extended average level mode [3]. In the experiment [4], the Ni-like SPP XRL on the 4f 1P1–4d 1P1 transition was demonstrated in Zr, Nb, and Mo, and the measured wavelengths for these ions were presented. For Mo14+ a gain of 13 cm−1 was measured at 22.6 nm for a target up to 1 cm long [4]. The wavelengths of this transition for ions from Z = 36 to 54 were predicted in [4] using the experimental data of this work to provide small corrections to their calculations. In the experiment [5], the progress in the optimization and understanding of the collisional pumping of X-ray lasers using an ultrashort subpicosecond heating pulse was reported. Time-integrated and time-resolved lasing signals at the standard 4d 1S0–4p 1P1 XRL line in Ni-like Ag were studied in detail. Under specific irradiation conditions, strong lasing was obtained on the SPP 4f 1P1–4d 1P1 transition at 16.1 nm. The strong lasing on the SPP transition in Mo14+ was also observed with very modest (less than 1 J) pump energy at a high repetition rate [6]. Recently, lasing on the SPP 3d 1P1–3p 1P1 laser line has been observed for Ne-like V, Cr, Fe, and Co, as well as for Ni-like Ru, Pd, and Ag [7]. A strong dependence on the delay between the main and second prepulse was found: the optimum delay shifts towards smaller delays with increasing atomic number Z. Accurate wavelength measurements and calculations were shown to be in excellent agreement. The experiment [7] demonstrated that the list of elements that lase on the SPP transitions can be extended much further than originally known.
Many authors have investigated the spectra of Ni-like ions using vacuum sparks, laser produced plasma and electron beam ion traps as light sources [8,9,10,11,12,13,14]. The 3d94d and 3d94f configurations have been analyzed in the Rb X–Mo XV sequence [10,11]. In [10,11], these configurations were investigated using parameter extrapolations within the Generalized-Least-Squares (GLS) method. This method was used in [12,13] to predict for 3d94d, 3d94f configuration energy levels in Cd XXI and Ag XX. GLS predictions of 3d94d, 3d94f energy levels in the Zr XIII–Pd XIX sequence are tabulated in [14].
Note that lasing wavelength (λlas) in Mo14+ was determined theoretically [2] and in the experiment [4] using one and the same atomic physics code [3], but results for λlas were somewhat different (by 4 Å). The 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] upper working level has the largest oscillator strength and radiative transition probability to the 3d10 ground level. This fact allows it to achieve high precision in this level energy measurement along the Ni-like sequence up to high Z ~ 84; in some ions, the energy of the transition to the ground state was accurate up to the fourth significant digit. The wavelengths of resonant radiative transitions in heavy Ni-like ions were calculated by us to Z = 83 in [15]. Moreover, in [15], the wavelengths (for Z within 79–82) were predicted with the same accuracy, although they have not yet been measured experimentally.
In the present paper, we analyze the smoothness of the working energy levels of SPP XRL along the Ni-like sequence. We found some irregularities in Ni-like sequence energies in the region Z = 42 (Mo14+) and in the region Z = 49 (In21+) for the upper 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] working level. The causes of the irregularities are studied.
The principle purpose of this paper is to predict the wavelengths of SPP XRL lines in Ni-like ions with Z ≤ 79. The calculations are performed by the Relativistic Perturbation Theory with Model Zero Approximation, (RPTMP). The fundamental principles of the RPTMP approach are given in [16]. Energy levels of the 3p63d94l, 3p53d104l, (l = 0, 1) configurations and radiative transition rates to the 3p63d10 ground state in the Kr IX ion are calculated by this method in [16]. The stability of calculations on the approximation used is shown in [16].

2. Features of Lower and Upper Working Levels of SPP XRL along the Ni-Like Sequence

The schematic diagram of three strong XRL transitions is shown in Figure 1: two of them are standard 3d4d [J = 0]–3d5/24p3/2 [J = 1] and 3d4d [J = 0]–3d3/24p1/2 [J = 1] transitions. The classifications of lower working levels in Figure 1 are valid for Z > 42. The 3d5/24p3/2 [J = 1] level is the lower working level of an XRL for the entire nickel isoelectronic sequence, the 3d3/24p1/2 [J = 1] level is the lower working level for heavy ions starting with Z = 62. The third 3d3/24p3/2 [J = 1] level decays to a ground state significantly weaker than the two mentioned above, and does not provide a significant gain. In our recent work [17], the energies of standard XRL transitions in ions of the Ni-like sequence with Z ≤ 79 are refined by RPTMP calculations. The calculated energies of the two standard 4d–4p, J = 0–1 XRL transitions are corrected by extrapolation of the experimental differentials of XRL transition energies dEZlas = EZlas–EZ-1las, i.e., the differences between transition energies of neighboring ions, which weakly depend on Z (especially in the region Z ≤ 50). It is proven that the accuracy for the final results for large Z is within the experimental error.
The 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1]–3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] transition is optically self-photopumped XRL in all Ni-like ions, the positions of working levels vary with respect to other levels along the sequence. Based on our previous studies of XRL [18,19,20], it can be argued that there are at least four principal differences between standard and self photo-pumped mechanisms:
(1)
In the standard scheme, the upper working level is populated by strong monopole electron collisions: in the SPP scheme it is populated by strong dipole electron collisions, which means high oscillator strength and effective photoabsorption.
(2)
Effective SPP XRL is possible only in optically thick plasma (large electron density ne and diameter d), while the standard XRL is possible both in optically thick and in optically thin plasma over a wide range of ne and d.
(3)
In the SPP, the upper working level is quickly emptied due to the large radiative decay rate. Therefore, in this scheme, a laser effect is short-lived; maximum XRL duration may be a few tens of picoseconds. A standard XRL can operate in quasi-continuous mode (under certain conditions).
(4)
In the SPP, the lower and upper working levels do not change their classification along the Ni-like sequence; in the standard scheme the upper working level changes its classification: the 3d5/24d5/2 [J = 0] state is dominant in the classification of the upper working level at Z ≤ 51, and the 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 0] state is dominant for Z > 51 [17].
Below, we demonstrate the irregularities in the sequence of both the lower and the upper working levels of SPP XRL. Crossing of each working level with another level causes these irregularities. Level crossing is accompanied by a strong interaction at certain Z points. Figure 2a shows the scaled energies along Z of the 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] lower working level and the 3d3/24d5/2 [J = 1] level close to it. In addition to the energy levels calculated here, Figure 2a also shows the corresponding experimental values [14]. Reference [14] does not indicate classification of 3d4d [J = 1] levels, their classification was made earlier in [11]. Note that theoretical and experimental classifications are identical. There are some differences between theoretical and experimental energies, typically a few units in the 4th–5th digits. These differences are conditioned by the shift of the theoretical list of energy levels as a whole, but this shift does not affect the accuracy of λlas. The energy levels in Figure 2a are scaled by dividing by (Z–23)2, so that the behavior of the third and fourth significant digits can be observed. At the beginning of the sequence, the 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] level is above the 3d3/24d5/2 [J = 1] level. The crossing of these levels is in the range 41 < Z < 42 (shown by arrows). The crossing of the corresponding experimental energy levels occurs at exactly the same Z values. At Z = 42, one can observe the “repulsion” of levels caused by their interaction; the “repulsion” is a feature of theoretical and experimental data. Note, that repulsion can be seen due to energy scaling; in fact, the repulsion value is approximately a few thousand cm−1, i.e., a few units in the fourth digit for the 3d3/24d5/2 [J = 1] level.
In Figure 2b, we can see hard-to-explain behavior of the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] upper working level in the region of Z = 42. The features of this level will be considered below in more detail; however, it is important to note, here, that the energy structure of odd states in the range Z = 40–49 exhibits extremely high instability caused by the interaction of levels with each other, which rapidly changes with Z. In the case at hand, we understand the instability as the ambiguity of the calculation of eigenvectors and eigenenergies. As a result, the calculation in the same approximation leads to different energies at a certain level. The deviation from the smooth curve in Figure 2a is ~10,000 cm−1; however, such a value leads to a sufficiently large deviation from the corresponding experimental values of λlas shown in Figure 3.
At the point Z = 42, λlas calculated here is ~222 Å, which is smaller than the experimental and theoretical values of [4] by 4 Å. In a recent experiment [7], the delay time between preliminary and main pump pulses was optimized to achieve the maximum yield of the X-ray laser. In fact, the electron density was optimized in [7]. X-ray lasing occurs in the Ni-like ion ionization mode, so that the lasing times on both transitions were restricted to the ionization time of Ni-like ions to the Co-like state. Time-resolved measurements in [7] allowed high-accuracy wavelength measurements of the SPP and standard X-ray laser lines. Thus, the calculations of the previous work [4] were confirmed: λlas ≈ 22.61 nm in Ni-like molybdenum (Mo14+, Z = 42). Our calculations are performed for an isolated atom. Based on the studies performed, it can be argued that the interaction of levels at the point Z = 42 is so strong that the energy levels 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1], 3d3/24d5/2 [J = 1] in dense hot plasma can differ significantly from the corresponding energy levels in an isolated atom.
The problem is the composition of the 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] working level, which indicates the strength of level interaction. It is shown in Figure 4 for all 3d4d [J = 1] levels in Ni-like ions with Z = 36–79. Figure 4 shows that contributions of the 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] and 3d3/24d5/2 [J = 1] levels are almost equal at Z = 42, which could lead to levels’ misidentification. Theoretical energies of these levels at Z = 42 are 2,393,554 cm−1 and 2,400,846 cm−1 (51% and 41%, respectively, are the contributions to the 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] low working level). The contributions of these levels in [11] are 45% and 34%, and the energies are 2,385,902 cm−1 and 2,393,229 cm−1 respectively. (We note that the theoretical list of energies of Ni- like ions in the range of small Z is shifted as a whole by 5000–8000 cm−1). Figure 4 demonstrates the rapid restructuring of lower working level compositions: so that the 3d5/24d3/2 [J = 1] level contribution increases by five orders of magnitude in the range Z = 40–42.
Figure 5 shows the scaled energies along Z of the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] upper working level and the close 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] level. Crossing of these levels occurs in the range 48 < Z < 49. At Z = 49 one can see the “repulsion” of levels caused by their interaction; the “repulsion” is a feature of theoretical data. In Figure 5, the corresponding experimental energies for the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] level are shown [14]. Unfortunately, we have no available data on the experimental 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] levels in the Z region under consideration. The value Z = 49 is the point of an abrupt jump (irregularity) in spectroscopic constants of the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] upper working level and the 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] level crossing it, caused by the strong interaction of these levels at this value of Z. This interaction is shown in Figure 6, where we can see the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] level composition. The interaction of levels at the point Z = 49 leads to the so-called effect of oscillator strength transfer we considered in [21] for the Ne-like sequence. At this point, the rate of radiative processes abruptly changes: the probabilities of the transition from the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] level to the ground state and to the state of the lower working level slightly decrease. At the same time, these probabilities for the 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] level increase by an order of magnitude and become almost equal in magnitude to the corresponding values of the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] level. It can be assumed that there was an incorrect identification at the point Z = 49 when extrapolating the upper working level in [4], and the 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] level that is close to the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] level in energy was used as the upper working level (see Figure 5). If this assumption is correct, λlas ~ 144.7 Å for Z = 49, which is identical to [4]. When using our value for 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1], λlas ~ 140.0 Å (here the energy jump shown in Figure 5 is taken into account). Another argument in favor of the incorrect identification in [4], are large jumps of the differential las (Z) = λlas (Z)−λlas (Z−1) in the range Z = 47–50.

3. Wavelengths of the Self-Photopumped Nickel-Like 4f 1P1→4d 1P1 X-ray Laser Transitions

A comparison of the wavelengths of the self-photopumped nickel-like 4f 1P1→4d 1P1 X-ray laser transitions, calculated using the RPTMP method with corresponding experimental values and shown in Figure 3, exhibits a deviation of ≤1% in the range Z = 37–46. For Z ≥ 48 Å, our results are identical to experimental data, with an accuracy of several units in the fourth significant digit. Two values of Z are exceptions: (i) the calculation instability point at Z = 42; and (ii) the point Z = 49, where the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] and 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] states are probably incorrectly identified in the calculation by the MCDF method in [4]. We estimated the accuracy of the calculation of the energies of the upper and lower working states for high Z using experimental measurements of various studies. As an example, we compared the experimental energies for Z = 74 (W46+), obtained using the Super EBIT (electron beam ion trap) [22,23], presented in Table 1. There are also listed the theoretical results calculated using the MCDF method called Grasp92 [24]. Here, we do not present earlier calculations of other authors. We also note the impossible comparison to the other calculations [25] in view of the level identification entanglement in this paper.
Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results for the energy levels in Table 1 may be noted: the maximum deviation is two units in the fourth significant digit. For the problem under study, it is important to ascertain the high accuracy of the calculation of the upper and lower working levels. For the experimental energy of the 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] level, Table 1 gives two values: one obtained in the experiments [22], and the other later [23]. The difference with our calculation is 6 units in the fifth significant digit. We did not find the experimental energy of the 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] lower working level for high Z in the literature. The energies of two other states of the 3d4d configuration with J = 1, 2, given in Table 1, also agree with high accuracy, which indirectly confirms the calculation reliability. Wavelengths of the 3d3/24f5/2 (1P1)–3d3/24d3/2 (1P1) SPP laser transitions in Ni-like sequence calculated by RPTMP are listed in Table 2.

4. Conclusions

The data on λlas (see Table 2) were obtained a priori, no fittings were used. The error could be several units in the fourth significant digit. The precision wavelengths of laser transitions are necessary, in particular, to determine ions in which intense laser emission is possible at wavelengths for which multilayer mirrors (MM) with high reflectance are developed. At least three values of λlas are of interest from the viewpoint of the development of XRL-based sources for nanolithography.
(i)
For Z = 50, λlas ~ 134.1 Å. For this wavelength region, MMs for nanolithography were developed as early as in 1993 [26]. The maximum normal incidence reflectivity achieved that time was 66% for a Mo/Si MM at λ = 13.4 nm, the reflectivity can be increased to 70%.
(ii)
For Z = 54 λlas ~ 11.3 nm. A series of normal-incidence reflectance measurements at just longer than the beryllium K-edge (11.1 nm) from Mo/Be MM was reported in [27]. The highest peak reflectance was 68.7 ± 0.2% at =11.3 nm obtained from a MM with 70 bilayers ending in beryllium.
Our model of the high efficient monochromatic radiation sources near λ = 13.5 at 11.3 nm obtained in Xe26+, intended for commercial nanolithography, was presented in our recent work [28].
(iii)
In Ni-like Ytterbium (Z = 70), λlas ≈ 67.25 Å. MM for wavelengths of 6.71–6.89 nm were developed in [29]. Summary of measured and calculated reflectivity of La/B MM for these wavelengths is listed in Table 1 of [29]. The largest reflectivity was observed and calculated for λ = 6.71–6.74 nm.
The crossing region of each working level with another level is characterized by their strong effect on each other, which can cause strong instability of the energy structure in the crossing region. In such regions, jumps in functions of energy levels and probabilities of radiative transition on Z are possible (see Figure 2a). The authors of [30], where the level crossing in the Ni-like sequence and associated irregularities in the functions of energies and probabilities of radiative transitions in the range Z = 74–84 were studied, arrived at the same conclusion. From this, the conclusion regarding the possible incorrect identification of levels in their crossing regions follows.
The SPP XRL can be very sensitive to external fields. It is implied that even an insignificant change in the plasma density can affect the emission spectrum. The remarkable phenomenon (see Figure 4) where a rapid increase in the contribution of the 3d5/24d3/2 [J = 1] level to the composition of the lower working level is demonstrated could be an indirect confirmation of this. In the interval Z = 40–42, the contribution of this level increases by five orders of magnitude. A similar pattern is observed in Figure 6, where the contribution of 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] also rapidly increases to Z = 49, where this level strongly interacts with the upper working level. In this case, the oscillator strength is transferred from the upper working level to the 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] level.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Nilsen, J. Self photo-pumped neon-like and nickel-like X-ray lasers. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Lund, Sweden, 10–14 June 1996; Svanberg, S., Walström, C.-G., Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1996. [Google Scholar]
  2. Nilsen, J. Design of a picosecond laser-driven Ni-like Mo X-ray laser near 20 nm. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1997, 14, 1511–1514. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Grant, I.P.; McKenzie, B.J.; Norrington, P.H.; Mayers, D.F.; Pyper, M.C. An atomic multiconfigurational Dirack-Fock package. Comput. Phys. Commun. 1980, 21, 207–231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Nilsen, J.; Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Li, Y. Lasing on the self-photopumped nickel-like 4f 1P1–4d 1P1 X-ray transition. Phys. Rev. A 1999, 60, R2677–R2680. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Kuba, J.; Klisnick, A.; Ros, D.; Fourcade, P.; Jamelot, G.; Miquel, J.-L.; Blanchot, N.; Wyart, J.-F. Two-color transient pumping in Ni-like silver at 13.9 and 16.1 nm. Phys. Rev. A 2000, 62, 043808. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Luther, B.M.; Wang, Y.; Larotonda, M.A.; Alessi, D.; Berrill, M.; Marconi, M.C.; Rocca, J.J.; Shlyaptsev, V.N. Saturated high-repetition rate 18.9 nm table top laser in Ni-like molybdenum. Opt. Lett. 2005, 30, 165–167. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Siegrist, M.; Staub, F.; Jia, F.; Feuer, T.; Balmer, J.; Nilsen, J. Self-photopumped X-ray lasers from elements in the Ne-like and Ni-like ionization state. Opt. Commun. 2017, 382, 288–293. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Reader, J.; Aquista, N.; Kaufman, V. Spectrum and energy levels of seven-times-ionized krypton (Kr VIII) and resonance lines of eight-times-ionized krypton. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1991, 8, 538–547. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Chen, H.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Fournier, K.B.; Träbert, E. Soft X-ray spectra of highly charged Kr ions in an electron-beam ion trap. Phys. Rev. E 2002, 65, 056401. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Churilov, S.S.; Ryabtsev, A.N.; Wyart, J.-F. Identification of n = 4, Δn = 0 transitions in the spectra of Nickel-like and Zn-like ions through tin. Phys. Scr. 1988, 38, 326–335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Ryabtsev, A.N.; Churilov, S.S.; Nilsen, J.; Li, Y.; Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L. Additional analysis of Ni-like ions spectra. Opt. Spectrosc. 1999, 87, 197–202. (In Russian) [Google Scholar]
  12. Rahman, A.; Hammarsten, E.C.; Sakadzik, S.; Rocca, J.J.; Wyart, J.-F. Identification of n = 4, Δn = 0 transitions in the spectra of Nickel-like cadmium ions from a capillary discharge plasma column. Phys. Scr. 2003, 67, 414–419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Rahman, A.; Rocca, J.J.; Wyart, J.-F. Classification of the Nickel-like silver spectrum (Ag XX) from a fast capillary discharge plasma. Phy. Scr. 2004, 70, 21–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Churilov, S.S.; Ryabtsev, A.N.; Wyart, J.-F. Analysis of the 4–4 transition in the Ni-like Kr IX. Phys. Scr. 2005, 71, 457–463. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Ivanova, E.P.; Gogava, A.L. Energies of X-ray transitions in heavy Ni-like ions. Opt. Spectrosc. 1985, 59, 1310–1314. (In Russian) [Google Scholar]
  16. Ivanova, E.P. Energy levels and probability of radiative transitions in the Kr IX ion. Opt. Spectrosc. 2014, 117, 179–187. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Ivanova, E.P. Wavelengths of the 4d–4p, 0–1 X-ray laser transitions in Ni-Like ions. Int. J. Adv. Res. Phys. Sci. 2016, 3, 34–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Ivanova, E.P. Proposal for precision wavelength measurement of the Ni-like gadolinium X-ray laser formed during the interaction of nanostructured target with an ultrashort laser beam. Laser Phys. Lett. 2015, 12, 105801. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Ivanova, E.P.; Zinoviev, N.A.; Knight, L.V. Theoretical investigation of X-ray laser on the transitions of Ni-like xenon in the range 13–14 nm. Quantum Electron. 2001, 31, 683–688. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Ivanova, E.P.; Ivanov, A.L. A superpowerful source of far-ultraviolet monochromatic radiation. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 2005, 100, 844–856. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Ivanova, E.P.; Grant, I. Oscillator strength anomalies in the neon isoelectronic sequence with applications to X-ray laser modeling. J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 1998, 31, 2871–2883. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Kramida, A.E.; Shirai, T. Energy levels and spectral lines of tungsten. W III through W LXXIV. At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 2009, 95, 305–474. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Clementson, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.V.; Gu, M.F. Spectroscopy of M-shell X-ray transitions in Zn-like through Co-like W. Phys. Scr. 2010, 81, 015301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Dong, C.-Z.; Fritzsche, S.; Xie, L.-Y. Energy levels and transition probabilities for possible X-ray laser lines of highly charged Ni-like ions. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transf. 2003, 76, 447–465. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Safronova, U.I.; Safronova, A.S.; Hamasha, S.M.; Beiersdorfer, P. Relativistic many-body calculations of multipole (E1, M1, E2, M2, E3, and M3) transitions wavelengths and rates between 3l−14l’excited and ground states in nickel-like ions. At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 2006, 92, 47–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Stearns, D.G.; Rosen, R.S.; Vernon, S.P. Multilayer mirror technology for soft-X-ray projection lithography. Appl. Opt. 1993, 32, 6952–6960. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Skulina, K.M.; Alford, C.S.; Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Gullikson, E.M.; Soufli, R.; Kortright, J.B.; Underwood, J.H. Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet. Appl. Opt. 1995, 34, 3727–3730. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Ivanova, E.P. X-ray laser near 13.5 and 11.3 nm in Xe26+ driven by intense pump laser interacting with xenon cluster jet as a promising radiation source for nanolithography. Laser Phys. 2017, 27, 055802–055811. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Makhotkin, I.A.; Zoethout, E.; Van de Kruijs, R.; Yakunin, S.N.; Louis, E.; Yakunin, A.M.; Banine, V.; Müllender, S.; Bijkerk, F. Short period La/B and LaN/B multilayer mirrors for 6.8 nm wavelengths. Opt. Express 2013, 21, 29894–29904. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Dong, C.Z.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaigalas, G.; Jacob, T.; Sienkievicz, J.E. Theoretical level structure and decay dynamics of Ni-like ions: search for laser lines in the soft X-ray domain. Phys. Scr. 2001, 92, 314–316. [Google Scholar]
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of three low XRL transitions in Ni-like ions.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of three low XRL transitions in Ni-like ions.
Atoms 05 00025 g001
Figure 2. (a) Theoretical and experimental crossing of low working 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] energy level with 3d3/24d5/2 [J = 1] energy level in Ni-like sequence, shown by scaled energy values along Z.; (b) Features of theoretical upper working level 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1], shown by scaled energy along Z in comparison with correspondent experimental data.
Figure 2. (a) Theoretical and experimental crossing of low working 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] energy level with 3d3/24d5/2 [J = 1] energy level in Ni-like sequence, shown by scaled energy values along Z.; (b) Features of theoretical upper working level 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1], shown by scaled energy along Z in comparison with correspondent experimental data.
Atoms 05 00025 g002
Figure 3. Difference between experimental, predicted from [4] and calculated here, λlas of SPP XRL transitions in Ni-like ions.
Figure 3. Difference between experimental, predicted from [4] and calculated here, λlas of SPP XRL transitions in Ni-like ions.
Atoms 05 00025 g003
Figure 4. Composition of lower working level 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] along Ni-like sequence on a logarithmic scale.
Figure 4. Composition of lower working level 3d3/24d3/2 [J = 1] along Ni-like sequence on a logarithmic scale.
Atoms 05 00025 g004
Figure 5. Crossing of upper working 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] energy level with 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] energy level in Ni-like sequence, shown by scaled energy values along Z. The corresponding experimental values for 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] energies are also shown.
Figure 5. Crossing of upper working 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] energy level with 3p3/24s1/2 [J = 1] energy level in Ni-like sequence, shown by scaled energy values along Z. The corresponding experimental values for 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] energies are also shown.
Atoms 05 00025 g005
Figure 6. Composition of upper working level 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] along Ni-like sequence on a logarithmic scale.
Figure 6. Composition of upper working level 3d3/24f5/2 [J = 1] along Ni-like sequence on a logarithmic scale.
Atoms 05 00025 g006
Table 1. Energy levels (103 cm−1) of W XLVII. Comparison of present calculations with experimental data [22,23] and with calculations by GRASP92 [24].
Table 1. Energy levels (103 cm−1) of W XLVII. Comparison of present calculations with experimental data [22,23] and with calculations by GRASP92 [24].
ConfigurationTermJExperimentPresent WorkGRASP92
3p63d101S000.00.00.0
3p63d94s(5/2,1/2)312,601.512,600.1
212,616.4412,615.212,591.1
3p63d94s(3/2,1/2)113,138.6613,137.813,110.8
213,148.213,147.413,120.7
3p63d94p(5/2,1/2)213,379.0513,357.5
313,388.2013,366.3
3p63d94p(3/2,1/2)213,916.2713,894.8
113,940.613,922.413,930.6
3p63d94p(5/2,3/2)114,229.014,234.914,221.0
3p63d94p(3/2,3/2)114,751.014,756.214,741.1
3p63d94d(3/2,3/2)1 15,935.915,924.2
3p63d94d(5/2,5/2)115,556.115,561.315,550.2
215,610.215,614.915,605.0
3p53d104s(3/2,1/2)116,247.016,258.9
3p63d94d(3/2,3/2)016,256.216,284.716,282.9
3p63d94f(5/2,7/2)117,045.917,042.217,030.6
3p63d94f(3/2,5/2)117,574.717,586.517,585.6
17,580.3 *
3p53d104s(1/2,1/2)118,72718,726.418,724.4
3p53d104d(3/2,3/2)119,044.419,041.819,057.5
3p53d104d(3/2,5/2)119,244.519,234.819,244.1
3p53d104f(3/2,7/2)220,589.020,600.120,613.8
3p53d104d(1/2,3/2)121,561.021,547.021,614.6
* Data from [23].
Table 2. Wavelengths (λlas, Å) of the 3d3/24f5/2 (1P1)–3d3/24d3/2 (1P1) SPP laser transitions in Ni-like sequence calculated by RPTMP.
Table 2. Wavelengths (λlas, Å) of the 3d3/24f5/2 (1P1)–3d3/24d3/2 (1P1) SPP laser transitions in Ni-like sequence calculated by RPTMP.
Zλlas
50134.08
51128.12
52122.54
53117.39
54112.66
55108.36
56104.295
57100.51
5896.98
5993.68
6090.57
6187.65
6284.89
6382.28
6479.81
6577.47
6675.23
6773.08
6871.06
6969.11
7067.25
7165.47
7263.75
7362.10
7460.51
7558.97
7657.48
7756.04
7854.64
7953.23
Atoms EISSN 2218-2004 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top