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Atoms 2015, 3(3), 407-421; doi:10.3390/atoms3030407

Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Few-Times Ionized Tungsten for Divertor Plasma Diagnostics

1
Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA
2
Lund Observatory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elmar Träbert
Received: 11 April 2015 / Revised: 1 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives of Atomic Physics with Trapped Highly Charged Ions)
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Abstract

The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from few-times ionized tungsten atoms has been experimentally studied at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility. The ions were produced and confined during low-energy operations of the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap. By varying the electron-beam energy from around 30–300 eV, tungsten ions in charge states expected to be abundant in tokamak divertor plasmas were excited, and the resulting EUV emission was studied using a survey spectrometer covering 120–320 Å. It is found that the emission strongly depends on the excitation energy; below 150 eV, it is relatively simple, consisting of strong isolated lines from a few charge states, whereas at higher energies, it becomes very complex. For divertor plasmas with tungsten impurity ions, this emission should prove useful for diagnostics of tungsten flux rates and charge balance, as well as for radiative cooling of the divertor volume. Several lines in the 194–223 Å interval belonging to the spectra of five- and seven-times ionized tungsten (Tm-like W VI and Ho-like W VIII) were also measured using a high-resolution spectrometer. View Full-Text
Keywords: EBIT; tokamak divertor; plasma diagnostics; tungsten ions; EUV spectroscopy EBIT; tokamak divertor; plasma diagnostics; tungsten ions; EUV spectroscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Clementson, J.; Lennartsson, T.; Beiersdorfer, P. Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Few-Times Ionized Tungsten for Divertor Plasma Diagnostics. Atoms 2015, 3, 407-421.

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