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Universe 2017, 3(3), 57;

Gravitational Lensing in Presence of Plasma: Strong Lens Systems, Black Hole Lensing and Shadow

Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 117997, Russia
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravitational Lensing and Astrometry)
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In this article, we present an overview of the new developments in problems of the plasma influence on the effects of gravitational lensing, complemented by pieces of new material and relevant discussions. Deflection of light in the presence of gravity and plasma is determined by a complex combination of various physical phenomena: gravity, dispersion, refraction. In particular, the gravitational deflection itself, in a homogeneous plasma without refraction, differs from the vacuum one and depends on the frequency of the photon. In an inhomogeneous plasma, chromatic refraction also takes place. We describe chromatic effects in strong lens systems including a shift of angular position of image and a change in magnification. We also investigate high-order images that arise when lensing on a black hole surrounded by homogeneous plasma. The recent results of analytical studies of the effect of plasma on the shadow of the Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: gravitational lensing; plasma; black holes; black hole shadow gravitational lensing; plasma; black holes; black hole shadow

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Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.; Tsupko, O.Y. Gravitational Lensing in Presence of Plasma: Strong Lens Systems, Black Hole Lensing and Shadow. Universe 2017, 3, 57.

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