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Universe 2016, 2(4), 27; doi:10.3390/universe2040027

Strategies to Ascertain the Sign of the Spatial Curvature

1
Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072-970, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
2
Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona 08193, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lorenzo Iorio and Elias C. Vagenas
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
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Abstract

The second law of thermodynamics, in the presence of gravity, is known to hold at small scales, as in the case of black holes and self-gravitating radiation spheres. Using the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric and the history of the Hubble factor, we argue that this law also holds at cosmological scales. Based on this, we study the connection between the deceleration parameter and the spatial curvature of the metric, Ω k , and set limits on the latter, valid for any homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model. Likewise, we devise strategies to determine the sign of the spatial curvature index k. Finally, assuming the lambda cold dark matter model is correct, we find that the acceleration of the cosmic expansion is increasing today. View Full-Text
Keywords: mathematical cosmology; spatial curvatur; thermodynamics mathematical cosmology; spatial curvatur; thermodynamics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ferreira, P.C.; Pavón, D. Strategies to Ascertain the Sign of the Spatial Curvature. Universe 2016, 2, 27.

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