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Metabolites 2016, 6(3), 29; doi:10.3390/metabo6030029

Untargeted NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of the Metabolic Variety of New Apple Cultivars

1
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Department of Safety and Quality of Fruit and Vegetables, Max Rubner-Institut, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
3
Institute for Biological Interfaces 4, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
4
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Max Rubner-Institut, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Meikle
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenging Biochemical Complexities by NMR)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2802 KB, uploaded 19 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Metabolome analyses by NMR spectroscopy can be used in quality control by generating unique fingerprints of different species. Hundreds of components and their variation between different samples can be analyzed in a few minutes/hours with high accuracy and low cost of sample preparation. Here, apple peel and pulp extracts of a variety of apple cultivars were studied to assess their suitability to discriminate between the different varieties. The cultivars comprised mainly newly bred varieties or ones that were brought onto the market in recent years. Multivariate analyses of peel and pulp extracts were able to unambiguously identify all cultivars, with peel extracts showing a higher discriminative power. The latter was increased if the highly concentrated sugar metabolites were omitted from the analysis. Whereas sugar concentrations lay within a narrow range, polyphenols, discussed as potential health promoting substances, and acids varied remarkably between the cultivars. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; multivariate analysis; quality control; malus domestica metabolomics; multivariate analysis; quality control; malus domestica
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Eisenmann, P.; Ehlers, M.; Weinert, C.H.; Tzvetkova, P.; Silber, M.; Rist, M.J.; Luy, B.; Muhle-Goll, C. Untargeted NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of the Metabolic Variety of New Apple Cultivars. Metabolites 2016, 6, 29.

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