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Metabolites 2016, 6(3), 22; doi:10.3390/metabo6030022

Vinegar Metabolomics: An Explorative Study of Commercial Balsamic Vinegars Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

1
The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag 92169, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
2
Department of Biological Sciences, State University of Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana 44036-900, Brazil
3
CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília DF 70040-020, Brazil
4
Agro-industry Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, State University of Santa Cruz, Ilhéus 45662-900, Brazil
5
School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Meikle
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 23 July 2016
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Abstract

Balsamic vinegar is a popular food condiment produced from cooked grape must by two successive fermentation (anaerobic and aerobic) processes. Although many studies have been performed to determine the composition of major metabolites, including sugars and aroma compounds, no study has been undertaken yet to characterize the comprehensive metabolite composition of balsamic vinegars. Here, we present the first metabolomics study of commercial balsamic vinegars by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The combination of three GC-MS methods allowed us to detect >1500 features in vinegar samples, of which 123 metabolites were accurately identified, including 25 amino acids, 26 carboxylic acids, 13 sugars and sugar alcohols, four fatty acids, one vitamin, one tripeptide and over 47 aroma compounds. Moreover, we identified for the first time in vinegar five volatile metabolites: acetin, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyroline, 4-anisidine and 1,3-diacetoxypropane. Therefore, we demonstrated the capability of metabolomics for detecting and identifying large number of metabolites and some of them could be used to distinguish vinegar samples based on their origin and potentially quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; metabolite profiling; amino acids; organic acids; fatty acids; aroma compounds; geographic indication metabolomics; metabolite profiling; amino acids; organic acids; fatty acids; aroma compounds; geographic indication
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pinu, F.R.; de Carvalho-Silva, S.; Trovatti Uetanabaro, A.P.; Villas-Boas, S.G. Vinegar Metabolomics: An Explorative Study of Commercial Balsamic Vinegars Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Metabolites 2016, 6, 22.

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