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Metabolites 2014, 4(2), 465-498; doi:10.3390/metabo4020465
Review

Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications

 and *
Received: 7 February 2014; in revised form: 2 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breath Analysis in Metabolomics)
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Abstract: Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles.
Keywords: volatile organic compounds (VOCs); trace gas analysis; volatile biomarkers; metabolomics volatile organic compounds (VOCs); trace gas analysis; volatile biomarkers; metabolomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lourenço, C.; Turner, C. Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications. Metabolites 2014, 4, 465-498.

AMA Style

Lourenço C, Turner C. Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications. Metabolites. 2014; 4(2):465-498.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire. 2014. "Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications." Metabolites 4, no. 2: 465-498.


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