Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Metabolites 2014, 4(2), 142-165; doi:10.3390/metabo4020142
Review

Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies

1
, 2,†,*  and 1,*
Received: 13 January 2014; in revised form: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 31 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Tissue Metabolomics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [579 KB, updated 3 April 2014; original version uploaded 31 March 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: The applications of stable isotopes in metabolomics have facilitated the study of cell metabolisms. Stable isotope-assisted metabolomics requires: (1) properly designed tracer experiments; (2) stringent sampling and quenching protocols to minimize isotopic alternations; (3) efficient metabolite separations; (4) high resolution mass spectrometry to resolve overlapping peaks and background noises; and (5) data analysis methods and databases to decipher isotopic clusters over a broad m/z range (mass-to-charge ratio). This paper overviews mass spectrometry based techniques for precise determination of metabolites and their isotopologues. It also discusses applications of isotopic approaches to track substrate utilization, identify unknown metabolites and their chemical formulas, measure metabolite concentrations, determine putative metabolic pathways, and investigate microbial community populations and their carbon assimilation patterns. In addition, 13C-metabolite fingerprinting and metabolic models can be integrated to quantify carbon fluxes (enzyme reaction rates). The fluxome, in combination with other “omics” analyses, may give systems-level insights into regulatory mechanisms underlying gene functions. More importantly, 13C-tracer experiments significantly improve the potential of low-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for broad-scope metabolism studies. We foresee the isotope-assisted metabolomics to be an indispensable tool in industrial biotechnology, environmental microbiology, and medical research.
Keywords: 13C-fingerprinting; flux; GC-MS; isotopologue; mass-to-charge; regulatory mechanisms 13C-fingerprinting; flux; GC-MS; isotopologue; mass-to-charge; regulatory mechanisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

You, L.; Zhang, B.; Tang, Y.J. Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies. Metabolites 2014, 4, 142-165.

AMA Style

You L, Zhang B, Tang YJ. Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies. Metabolites. 2014; 4(2):142-165.

Chicago/Turabian Style

You, Le; Zhang, Baichen; Tang, Yinjie J. 2014. "Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies." Metabolites 4, no. 2: 142-165.



Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert