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Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 585-602; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040585

Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae)

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacobotany, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, Vienna A-1090, Austria
2
Department of Forest Genetics, Research Centre for Forests, Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg 8, Vienna A-1131, Austria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Reinhard Länger
Received: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
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Abstract

The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated—except for one sample worthy of discussion—according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters. View Full-Text
Keywords: anatomy; asteraceae; character evolution; pharmacy; phylogeny anatomy; asteraceae; character evolution; pharmacy; phylogeny
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Ginko, E.; Dobeš, C.; Saukel, J. Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae). Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84, 585-602.

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