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Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 259-280; doi:10.3797/scipharm.1204-08

An Improvement of the Efficacy of Moxifloxacin HCl for the Treatment of Bacterial Keratitis by the Formulation of Ocular Mucoadhesive Microspheres

1
KLE University’s College of Pharmacy, JNMC Campus, Nehru nagar, 590010, Belgaum, India
2
KDCA’s Institute of Pharmacy, Ujalaiwadi, Kolhapur, 416004, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to prepare novel ocular mucoadhesive microspheres of Moxifloxacin HCl to increase its residence time on the ocular surface and to enhance its therapeutic efficacy in ocular bacterial keratitis. Microspheres were fabricated with different grades of Methocel and Sodium CMC as polymers. Microspheres were evaluated for their particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, mucoadhesion, antimicrobial efficacy, and in vitro drug release studies. In vivo studies were carried out for the promising formulation on eyes of albino rabbits by inducing bacterial keratitis. A sterile microspheres suspension in light mineral oil was applied to infected eyes twice a day. A marketed conventional eye drop was used as a positive control. Eyes were examined daily for improvement of clinical signs of bacterial keratitis by an ophthalmologist. The average particle size of microspheres was found to be less than 80 μm. Methocel microspheres were found to have a smoother surface than Sodium CMC. Entrapment efficiency was enhanced with an increased polymer concentration and viscosity. The formulation containing Methocel K100M with a drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 exerted longer corneal and conjunctival mucoadhesion time of 8.45±0.15 h and 9.40±0.53 h respectively. In vitro release of Moxifloxacin HCl from microspheres was retarded with increased viscosity and concentration of polymers, and was controlled by diffusion as well as polymer relaxation. All formulations showed comparable antimicrobial activity in comparison with conventional marketed eye drops. The formulation containing Methocel K100M with a drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 was found to be a promising formulation and was used for the in vivo studies. The in vivo studies revealed that microspheres demonstrated significantly lower clinical scores and reduced the total duration of therapy than the marketed Moxifloxacin HCl eye drops. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that ocular mucoadhesive microspheres of Moxifloxacin HCl were found to have an improved efficacy in the treatment of ocular bacterial keratitis in comparison with the marketed formulation.
Keywords: Microspheres; Moxifloxacin HCl; Mucoadhesion; Bacterial keratitis; Ocular Microspheres; Moxifloxacin HCl; Mucoadhesion; Bacterial keratitis; Ocular
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

DANDAGI, P.M.; BELEKAR, A.M.; MASTIHOLIMATH, V.S.; GADAD, A.P.; SONTAKE, V.W.; SALIAN, P.S. An Improvement of the Efficacy of Moxifloxacin HCl for the Treatment of Bacterial Keratitis by the Formulation of Ocular Mucoadhesive Microspheres. Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81, 259-280.

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