The Voice of the Heart: Vowel-Like Sound in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension
AbstractIncreased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery is referred to as pulmonary hypertension and often is linked to loud pulmonic valve closures. For the purpose of this paper, it was hypothesized that pulmonary circulation vibrations will create sounds similar to sounds created by vocal cords during speech and that subjects with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) could have unique sound signatures across four auscultatory sites. Using a digital stethoscope, heart sounds were recorded at the cardiac apex, 2nd left intercostal space (2LICS), 2nd right intercostal space (2RICS), and 4th left intercostal space (4LICS) undergoing simultaneous cardiac catheterization. From the collected heart sounds, relative power of the frequency band, energy of the sinusoid formants, and entropy were extracted. PAH subjects were differentiated by applying the linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross-validation. The entropy of the first sinusoid formant decreased significantly in subjects with a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAp) ≥ 25 mmHg versus subjects with a mPAp < 25 mmHg with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 88.57%, within a 10-s optimized window length for heart sounds recorded at the 2LICS. First sinusoid formant entropy reduction of heart sounds in PAH subjects suggests the existence of a vowel-like pattern. Pattern analysis revealed a unique sound signature, which could be used in non-invasive screening tools. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Elgendi, M.; Bobhate, P.; Jain, S.; Guo, L.; Rutledge, J.; Coe, Y.; Zemp, R.; Schuurmans, D.; Adatia, I. The Voice of the Heart: Vowel-Like Sound in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension. Diseases 2018, 6, 26.
Elgendi M, Bobhate P, Jain S, Guo L, Rutledge J, Coe Y, Zemp R, Schuurmans D, Adatia I. The Voice of the Heart: Vowel-Like Sound in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension. Diseases. 2018; 6(2):26.Chicago/Turabian Style
Elgendi, Mohamed; Bobhate, Prashant; Jain, Shreepal; Guo, Long; Rutledge, Jennifer; Coe, Yashu; Zemp, Roger; Schuurmans, Dale; Adatia, Ian. 2018. "The Voice of the Heart: Vowel-Like Sound in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension." Diseases 6, no. 2: 26.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.