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Open AccessConcept Paper
Diseases 2016, 4(4), 37; doi:10.3390/diseases4040037

Developing a Research Instrument to Document Awareness, Knowledge, and Attitudes Regarding Breast Cancer and Early Detection Techniques for Pakistani Women: The Breast Cancer Inventory (BCI)

1
Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Dammam, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Social Sciences, Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology SZABIST, Clifton, Karachi 75600, Pakistan
3
Natural Products and Alternative Medicines, College of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Dammam, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Dammam, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [527 KB, uploaded 9 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

There is a general hesitation in participation among Pakistani women when it comes to giving their responses in surveys related to breast cancer which may be due to the associated stigma and conservatism in society. We felt that no research instrument was able to extract information from the respondents to the extent it was needed for the successful execution of our study. The need to develop a research instrument tailored for Pakistani women was based upon the fact that most Pakistani women come from a conservative background and sometimes view this topic as provocative and believe discussing publicly about it as inappropriate. Existing research instruments exhibited a number of weaknesses during literature review. Therefore, using them may not be able to extract information concretely. A research instrument was, thus, developed exclusively. It was coined as, “breast cancer inventory (BCI)” by a panel of experts for executing a study aimed at documenting awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of Pakistani women regarding breast cancer and early detection techniques. The study is still in the data collection phase. The statistical analysis involved the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure and Bartlett’s test for sampling adequacy. In addition, reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were, also employed. This concept paper focuses on the development, piloting and validation of the BCI. It is the first research instrument which has high acceptability among Pakistani women and is able to extract adequate information from the respondents without causing embarrassment or unease. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; research methodology; reliability; validation; piloting; pretesting; questionnaire breast cancer; research methodology; reliability; validation; piloting; pretesting; questionnaire
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Naqvi, A.A.; Zehra, F.; Ahmad, R.; Ahmad, N. Developing a Research Instrument to Document Awareness, Knowledge, and Attitudes Regarding Breast Cancer and Early Detection Techniques for Pakistani Women: The Breast Cancer Inventory (BCI). Diseases 2016, 4, 37.

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