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Diseases 2015, 3(3), 150-158; doi:10.3390/diseases3030150

Menahydroquinone-4 Prodrug: A Promising Candidate Anti-Hepatocellular Carcinoma Agent

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-180, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen L. Chan
Received: 20 May 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Present and Future)
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Abstract

Recently, new therapeutics have been developed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the overall survival rate of HCC patients is still unsatisfactory; one of the reasons for this is the high frequency of recurrence after radical treatment. Consequently, to improve prognosis, it will be important to develop a novel anti-tumor agent that is especially effective against HCC recurrence. For clinical application, long-term safety, together with high anti-tumor efficacy, is desirable. Recent studies have proposed menahydroquinone-4 1,4-bis-N,N-dimethylglycinate hydrochloride (MKH-DMG), a prodrug of menahydroquinone-4 (MKH), as a promising candidate for HCC treatment including the inhibition of recurrence; MKH-DMG has been shown to achieve good selective accumulation of MKH in tumor cells, resulting in satisfactory inhibition of cell proliferation in des-γ-carboxyl prothrombin (DCP)-positive and DCP-negative HCC cell lines. In a spleen-liver metastasis mouse model, MKH-DMG has been demonstrated to have anti-proliferation and anti-metastatic effects in vivo. The characteristics of MKH-DMG as a novel anti-HCC agent are presented in this review article. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K; hepatocellular carcinoma; anti-cancer drug; drug delivery; menaquinone-4 vitamin K; hepatocellular carcinoma; anti-cancer drug; drug delivery; menaquinone-4
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Enjoji, M.; Watase, D.; Matsunaga, K.; Kusuda, M.; Nagata-Akaho, N.; Karube, Y.; Takata, J. Menahydroquinone-4 Prodrug: A Promising Candidate Anti-Hepatocellular Carcinoma Agent. Diseases 2015, 3, 150-158.

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