Next Article in Journal
Homogeneous Crystallization of Micro-DispensedTIPS-Pentacene Using a Two-Solvent System toEnable Printed Inverters on Foil Substrates
Next Article in Special Issue
Introduction to Hardware Security
Previous Article in Journal
Connected Vehicles, V2V Communications, and VANET
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Electronics 2015, 4(3), 541-564; doi:10.3390/electronics4030541

Beyond the Interconnections: Split Manufacturing in RF Designs

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dhananjay S. Phatak
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015

Abstract

With the globalization of the integrated circuit (IC) design flow of chip fabrication, intellectual property (IP) piracy is becoming the main security threat. While most of the protection methods are dedicated for digital circuits, we are trying to protect radio-frequency (RF) designs. For the first time, we applied the split manufacturing method in RF circuit protection. Three different implementation cases are introduced for security and design overhead tradeoffs, i.e., the removal of the top metal layer, the removal of the top two metal layers and the design obfuscation dedicated to RF circuits. We also developed a quantitative security evaluation method to measure the protection level of RF designs under split manufacturing. Finally, a simple Class AB power amplifier and a more sophisticated Class E power amplifier are used for the demonstration through which we prove that: (1) the removal of top metal layer or the top two metal layers can provide high-level protection for RF circuits with a lower request to domestic foundries; (2) the design obfuscation method provides the highest level of circuit protection, though at the cost of design overhead; and (3) split manufacturing may be more suitable for RF designs than for digital circuits, and it can effectively reduce IP piracy in untrusted off-shore foundries. View Full-Text
Keywords: hardware trust; IP piracy; power amplifier; RF circuit; split manufacturing hardware trust; IP piracy; power amplifier; RF circuit; split manufacturing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bi, Y.; Yuan, J.S.; Jin, Y. Beyond the Interconnections: Split Manufacturing in RF Designs. Electronics 2015, 4, 541-564.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Electronics EISSN 2079-9292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top