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Electronics 2015, 4(3), 507-525; doi:10.3390/electronics4030507

A FPGA-Based Broadband EIT System for Complex Bioimpedance Measurements—Design and Performance Estimation

1
Laboratory of Medical Electronics (LME), Lübeck University of Applied Sciences, 23562 Lübeck, Germany
2
Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Lübeck, 23562 Lübeck, Germany
3
Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Lübeck, 23562 Lübeck, Germany
4
Center of Excellence CoSA (Communications—Systems—Applications), Lübeck University of Applied Sciences, 23562 Lübeck, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ignacio Bravo-Muñoz
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 19 July 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3298 KB, uploaded 29 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging method that is able to estimate the electrical conductivity distribution of living tissue. This work presents a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based multi-frequency EIT system for complex, time-resolved bioimpedance measurements. The system has the capability to work with measurement setups with up to 16 current electrodes and 16 voltage electrodes. The excitation current has a range of about 10 µA to 5 mA, whereas the sinusoidal signal used for excitation can have a frequency of up to 500 kHz. Additionally, the usage of a chirp or rectangular signal excitation is possible. Furthermore, the described system has a sample rate of up to 3480 impedance spectra per second (ISPS). The performance of the EIT system is demonstrated with a resistor-based phantom and tank phantoms. Additionally, first measurements taken from the human thorax during a breathing cycle are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioimpedance measurements; electrical impedance tomography; multi-frequency; chirp signal excitation; broadband impedance measurements bioimpedance measurements; electrical impedance tomography; multi-frequency; chirp signal excitation; broadband impedance measurements
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kusche, R.; Malhotra, A.; Ryschka, M.; Ardelt, G.; Klimach, P.; Kaufmann, S. A FPGA-Based Broadband EIT System for Complex Bioimpedance Measurements—Design and Performance Estimation. Electronics 2015, 4, 507-525.

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