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Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 22; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030022

Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Kojic Acid Derivative in Bioreactors and the Analysis of Its Depigmenting and Antioxidant Activities

1
Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Biochemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Bioprocessing and Biomanufacturing Research Center, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract

In this study, 7-O-kojic acid monopalmitate (7-O-KAP) was synthesized using palmitic acid and kojic acid where the yield and biological activities were analyzed. The highest yield of 7-O-KAP (43%) can be obtained at molar ratio of 1:1, enzyme loading of 5% (w/v), temperature of 70 °C, using immobilized lipase N435 in solvent-free system. Stirred tank reactor (STR) provides better mixing of the substrates and biocatalyst with better yield of 7-O-KAP, compared to fluidized tank reactor (FTR) and packed bed reactor (PBR). The 7-O-KAP exhibited pseudoplastic behavior with flow behavior index (n) being less than 1. The 7-O-KAP showed better depigmenting activity with the reduction of melanin content in Danio rerio embryo to 18.70%, significantly lower than the positive control, kojic acid (60.39%) at highest concentration tested (250 μg/mL). Intracellular tyrosinase in Danio rerio embryo was also reduced when treated with 7-O-KAP (12.53%), compared to kojic acid (37.36%) at concentration of 250 μg/mL. In FRAP assay, 7-O-KAP had antioxidant activity of 8156 AAE/mL, which was higher than kojic acid (6794 AAE/mL) at concentration of 2 mg/mL. The 7-O-KAP also reduced peroxidation activity to 12.21%, which was better compared to kojic acid (31.68%) at 2 mg/mL. Moreover, it was found that lipid peroxidation activity of 7-O-KAP (12.21%) was comparable to BHT (11.56%) at 2 mg/mL. Based on this study, 7-O-KAP could be an alternative compound for whitening agent and antioxidant compared to kojic acid and BHT, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; depigmenting; enzymatic; fluidized tank; G361 cells; packed bed; stirred tank antioxidant; depigmenting; enzymatic; fluidized tank; G361 cells; packed bed; stirred tank
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lajis, A.F.B.; Hamid, M.; Ahmad, S.; Ariff, A.B. Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Kojic Acid Derivative in Bioreactors and the Analysis of Its Depigmenting and Antioxidant Activities. Cosmetics 2017, 4, 22.

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