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Cosmetics 2014, 1(1), 61-74; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1010061
Review

Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients: In Vitro Opportunities for the Identification of Contact Allergens

1,* , 1
, 1
 and 2
1 Laboratory of Toxicology, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari (DiSFeB), Università degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Balzaretti, 9, 20133 Milan, Italy 2 3Rs Management and Consulting ApS, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What Do You Know about Cosmetics?)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [216 KB, 25 March 2014; original version 20 March 2014]

Abstract

Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are undesired side effects in the development of drugs and cosmetics as well as after contact with environmental or industrial chemicals. Over the last decades, a great deal of progress has been made in the development of alternative In vitro test to assess these issues. Driven by the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetic Directive, the EU policy on chemicals (the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH) system), the update of the European legislation on the protection of animals used in research, and emerging visions and strategies for predicting toxicity, in vitro methods are likely to play a major role in the near future. On 12 December 2013, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM, part of the European Commission Joint Research Centre) published its Recommendation on the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) for skin sensitization, capable of distinguishing sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Other assays (i.e., KeratinoSens™ assay) will follow shortly. While a number of methods are at various stages of development and use, currently it is not possible to rank chemicals for their sensitizing potency, an issue that is important for a full safety assessment. It is expected that a predictive method to totally replace animal testing will be in the form of a test battery comprising molecular, cell-based, and/or computational methods, the so-called “Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment”. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art in the field of in vitro assessment of contact sensitizers.
Keywords: allergy; keratinocytes; dendritic cells; in vitro immunotoxicology allergy; keratinocytes; dendritic cells; in vitro immunotoxicology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Corsini, E.; Papale, A.; Galbiati, V.; Roggen, E.L. Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients: In Vitro Opportunities for the Identification of Contact Allergens. Cosmetics 2014, 1, 61-74.

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