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J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2018, 8(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jlpea8030027

A 0.5 V 68 nW ECG Monitoring Analog Front-End for Arrhythmia Diagnosis

1
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2
The Charles L. Brown Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CMOS Low Power Design)
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Abstract

This paper presents a power efficient analog front-end (AFE) for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal monitoring and arrhythmia diagnosis. The AFE uses low-noise and low-power circuit design methodologies and aggressive voltage scaling to satisfy both the low power consumption and low input-referred noise requirements of ECG signal acquisition systems. The AFE was realized with a three-stage fully differential AC-coupled amplifier, and it provides bio-signal acquisition with programmable gain and bandwidth. The AFE was implemented in a 130 nm CMOS process, and it has a measured tunable mid-band gain from 31 to 52 dB with tunable low-pass and high-pass corner frequencies. Under only 0.5 V supply voltage, it consumes 68 nW of power with an input-referred noise of 2.8 µVrms and a power efficiency factor (PEF) of 3.9, which makes it very suitable for energy-harvesting applications. The low-noise 68nW AFE was also integrated on a self-powered physiological monitoring System on Chip (SoC) that is used to capture ECG bio-signals. Heart rate extraction (R-R) detection algorithms were implemented and utilized to analyze the ECG data received by the AFE, showing the feasibility of <100 nW AFE for continuous ECG monitoring applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: analog front end (AFE); electrocardiogram (ECG); IoT; sub-threshold operation; ultralow power analog front end (AFE); electrocardiogram (ECG); IoT; sub-threshold operation; ultralow power
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kosari, A.; Breiholz, J.; Liu, N.; Calhoun, B.H.; Wentzloff, D.D. A 0.5 V 68 nW ECG Monitoring Analog Front-End for Arrhythmia Diagnosis. J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2018, 8, 27.

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