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Fibers 2017, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/fib5010009

Role of Inelastic Transverse Compressive Behavior and Multiaxial Loading on the Transverse Impact of Kevlar KM2 Single Fiber

1
SmartState Center for Multifunctional Materials and Structures, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
3
Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
5
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
6
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen C. Bondy
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Fibers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6840 KB, uploaded 22 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

High-velocity transverse impact of ballistic fabrics and yarns by projectiles subject individual fibers to multi-axial dynamic loading. Single-fiber transverse impact experiments with the current state-of-the-art experimental capabilities are challenging due to the associated micron length-scale. Kevlar® KM2 fibers exhibit a nonlinear inelastic behavior in transverse compression with an elastic limit less than 1.5% strain. The effect of this transverse behavior on a single KM2 fiber subjected to a cylindrical and a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) transverse impact is studied with a 3D finite element model. The inelastic behavior results in a significant reduction of fiber bounce velocity and projectile-fiber contact forces up to 38% compared to an elastic impact response. The multiaxial stress states during impact including transverse compression, axial tension, axial compression and interlaminar shear are presented at the location of failure. In addition, the models show a strain concentration over a small length in the fiber under the projectile-fiber contact. A failure criterion, based on maximum axial tensile strain accounting for the gage length, strain rate and multiaxial loading degradation effects are applied to predict the single-fiber breaking speed. Results are compared to the elastic response to assess the importance of inelastic material behavior on failure during a transverse impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: aramid fiber; impact behavior; finite element analysis (FEA) aramid fiber; impact behavior; finite element analysis (FEA)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sockalingam, S.; Gillespie, J.W.; Keefe, M. Role of Inelastic Transverse Compressive Behavior and Multiaxial Loading on the Transverse Impact of Kevlar KM2 Single Fiber. Fibers 2017, 5, 9.

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