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Fibers, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2015), Pages 380-587

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Research

Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Coated Poly(l-Lactic Acid) Fibers and Their Braided Rope
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 380-393; doi:10.3390/fib3040380
Received: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 September 2015 / Published: 1 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel chitosan (CS)-coated poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) fibers (CS–PLA) were prepared by reaction of an alkali and CS under heat treatment without a chemical binder. These treatments induced hydrolysis on the PLA surface, formation of ionic bonds between the carboxyl groups of the PLA
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Novel chitosan (CS)-coated poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) fibers (CS–PLA) were prepared by reaction of an alkali and CS under heat treatment without a chemical binder. These treatments induced hydrolysis on the PLA surface, formation of ionic bonds between the carboxyl groups of the PLA surface and the amino groups of CS, and dehydration between the carboxyls and amines. The prepared fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and mechanical strength tests. The presence of CS on the fiber surface was observed by the visual test of CS–PLA with amido black 10B and confirmed by the amine ratio obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The coating thickness of CS on the surface of the PLA fibers was approximately 28 nm, as determined from calculations based on the results of Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis and elemental analysis. The degradation properties of CS–PLA were also investigated. These properties were apparently enhanced by hydrophilicity resulting from the CS-coating treatment. Furthermore, braided ropes prepared using CS–PLA became tight with increasing number of core ropes. Results indicate that the objective tensile strength and flexibility of the braided rope could be controlled by adjusting the number of core fibers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Using Mechanical Alloying to Create Bimetallic Catalysts for Vapor-Phase Carbon Nanofiber Synthesis
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 394-410; doi:10.3390/fib3040394
Received: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 September 2015 / Published: 5 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanofibers were generated over bimetallic catalysts in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) reactor. Catalyst compositions of Fe 30 at%, Cu and Ni 30 at% and Cu were mechanically alloyed using high-energy ball milling over durations of 4, 8, 12, 16,
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Carbon nanofibers were generated over bimetallic catalysts in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) reactor. Catalyst compositions of Fe 30 at%, Cu and Ni 30 at% and Cu were mechanically alloyed using high-energy ball milling over durations of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h. The catalyst powders were then used to produce carbon nanofibers in ethylene and hydrogen (4:1) at temperatures of 500, 550, and 600 °C. The microstructures of the catalysts were characterized as a function of milling time as well as at deposition temperature. The corresponding carbon deposition rates were assessed and are correlated to the microstructural features of each catalyst. The milling process directly determines the performance of each catalyst toward carbon deposition, and both catalysts performed comparably to those made by traditional co-precipitation methods. Considerations in miscible and immiscible nanostructured alloy systems are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle Finite Element Modeling of GFRP-Reinforced Concrete Interior Slab-Column Connections Subjected to Moment Transfer
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 411-431; doi:10.3390/fib3040411
Received: 29 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 October 2015 / Published: 12 October 2015
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Abstract
A finite element model (FEM) was constructed using specialized three-dimensional (3D) software to investigate the punching shear behavior of interior slab-column connections subjected to a moment-to-shear ratio of 0.15 m. The FEM was then verified against the experimental results of full-scale interior slab-column
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A finite element model (FEM) was constructed using specialized three-dimensional (3D) software to investigate the punching shear behavior of interior slab-column connections subjected to a moment-to-shear ratio of 0.15 m. The FEM was then verified against the experimental results of full-scale interior slab-column connections reinforced with glass fiber reinforcement polymer (GFRP) bars previously tested by the authors. The FEM results showed that the constructed model was able to predict the behavior of the slabs with reasonable accuracy. Afterward, the verified model was used to conduct a parametric study to investigate the effects of reinforcement ratio, perimeter-to-depth ratio, and column aspect ratio on the punching shear behavior of such connections. The test results showed that increasing the tested parameters enhanced the overall behavior of the connections in terms of decreasing deflections and reinforcement strain and increasing the ultimate capacity. In addition, the obtained punching shear stresses of the connections were compared to the predictions of the Canadian standard and the American guideline for FRP-reinforced concrete structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) for Infrastructure Applications)
Open AccessArticle Concrete-Filled-Large Deformable FRP Tubular Columns under Axial Compressive Loading
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 432-449; doi:10.3390/fib3040432
Received: 29 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 14 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The behavior of concrete-filled fiber tubes (CFFT) polymers under axial compressive loading was investigated. Unlike the traditional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) such as carbon, glass, aramid, etc., the FRP tubes in this study were designed using large rupture strains FRP which are
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The behavior of concrete-filled fiber tubes (CFFT) polymers under axial compressive loading was investigated. Unlike the traditional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) such as carbon, glass, aramid, etc., the FRP tubes in this study were designed using large rupture strains FRP which are made of recycled materials such as plastic bottles; hence, large rupture strain (LRS) FRP composites are environmentally friendly and can be used in the context of green construction. This study performed finite element (FE) analysis using LS-DYNA software to conduct an extensive parametric study on CFFT. The effects of the FRP confinement ratio, the unconfined concrete compressive strength ( ), column size, and column aspect ratio on the behavior of the CFFT under axial compressive loading were investigated during this study. A comparison between the behavior of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP and those with traditional FRP (carbon and glass) with a high range of confinement ratios was conducted as well. A new hybrid FRP system combined with traditional and LRS-FRP is proposed. Generally, the CFFTs with LRS-FRP showed remarkable behavior under axial loading in strength and ultimate strain. Equations to estimate the concrete dilation parameter and dilation angle of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP tubes and hybrid FRP tubes are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) for Infrastructure Applications)
Open AccessArticle Core–Shell Electrospun Hollow Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Fibers
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 450-462; doi:10.3390/fib3040450
Received: 20 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, core–shell electrospinning was employed as a simple method for the fabrication of composite coaxial polymer fibers that became hollow ceramic tubes when calcined at high temperature. The shell polymer solution consisted of polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP) in ethanol mixed with an
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In this work, core–shell electrospinning was employed as a simple method for the fabrication of composite coaxial polymer fibers that became hollow ceramic tubes when calcined at high temperature. The shell polymer solution consisted of polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP) in ethanol mixed with an aluminum acetate solution to act as a ceramic precursor. The core polymer was recycled polystyrene to act as a sacrificial polymer that burned off during calcination. The resulting fibers were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the presence of gamma-phase aluminum oxide when heated at temperatures above 700 °C. The fiber diameter decreased from 987 ± 19 nm to 382 ± 152 nm after the calcination process due to the polymer material being burned off. The wall thickness of these fibers is estimated to be 100 nm. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Smart Shirt Made with Conductive Ink and Conductive Foam for the Measurement of Electrocardiogram Signals with Unipolar Precordial Leads
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 463-477; doi:10.3390/fib3040463
Received: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Holter monitor is used to measure an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal while a subject moves. However, the Holter monitor is uncomfortable for the subject. Another method of measuring the ECG signal uses a smart shirt. We developed a smart shirt that has six
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The Holter monitor is used to measure an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal while a subject moves. However, the Holter monitor is uncomfortable for the subject. Another method of measuring the ECG signal uses a smart shirt. We developed a smart shirt that has six electrodes on the chest and can measure a detailed ECG, obtained with unipolar precordial leads. The electrodes and wires of the shirt are made of conductive ink that is flexible and stretchable. The smart shirt is stretchable and fits the body well. However, because of the gap between the smart shirt and the body, electrodes V1 and V2 do not touch the body consistently. We developed a conductive foam block that fills this gap. We investigated the characteristics of the conductive foam block, and measured ECG signals using the smart shirt. The electrical resistance of the conductive foam block was reduced by pressure. This characteristic could be utilized to measure the ECG signal because the block was pressed by the body and smart shirt. We could measure the ECG signal using the smart shirt and blocks while the subject walked and could detect peaks of the ECG signal while the subject jogged slowly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Textiles)
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Open AccessArticle Biodegradable Nanofiber for Delivery of Immunomodulating Agent in the Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 478-490; doi:10.3390/fib3040478
Received: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we investigate a potential new treatment option for basal cell carcinoma using electrospun polymer nanofibers. Poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers incorporated with the anti-cancer drug imiquimod were successfully produced for the first time. These fibers were characterized and their diffusion release profile tested
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In this paper we investigate a potential new treatment option for basal cell carcinoma using electrospun polymer nanofibers. Poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers incorporated with the anti-cancer drug imiquimod were successfully produced for the first time. These fibers were characterized and their diffusion release profile tested in vitro. A range of different electrospinning parameters were investigated in order to determine the most effective approach in optimizing the fibers for future in vivo testing. Characterization showed stable and homogeneous distribution of imiquimod. Although the drug was released faster than what would be needed to replicate the current treatment model, this system would ideally allow for a treatment option which reduces side effects and is more convenient for the patient than the current topical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Textiles)
Open AccessArticle Experimental Analysis of Repaired Masonry Elements with Flax-FRCM and PBO-FRCM Composites Subjected to Axial Bending Loads
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 491-503; doi:10.3390/fib3040491
Received: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
PDF Full-text (1038 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the construction industry, the use of natural fabrics as a reinforcement for cement-based composites has shown great potential. The use of these sustainable composites to provide strengthening or repair old masonry structures that exhibit structural problems mainly due to a poor tensile
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In the construction industry, the use of natural fabrics as a reinforcement for cement-based composites has shown great potential. The use of these sustainable composites to provide strengthening or repair old masonry structures that exhibit structural problems mainly due to a poor tensile strength of the mortar/brick joints is revealed to be a promising area of research. One of the most significant load conditions affecting the mechanical response of masonry structures occurs when axial bending loads are applied on the resistant cross-section. In this study, three different types of masonry elements were built using clay bricks and a lime-based mortar. After 28 days, the samples were subjected to concentric and eccentric compressive loads. In order to produce significant bending effects, the compressive loads were applied with large eccentricity, and a sudden failure characterized the behavior of the unreinforced masonry (URM) elements. The tested masonry specimens were repaired using fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites produced using bi-directional flax and polyparaphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO) fabrics. The mechanical behavior of the URM and repaired samples was compared in terms of load-displacement and moment-curvature responses. Furthermore, the results achieved using flax-FRCM composites were compared with those of using PBO-FRCM composites. Full article
Open AccessArticle Improving the Reinforcement of Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Infrastructure Applications
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 504-522; doi:10.3390/fib3040504
Received: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increase in the use of polyolefin fiber-reinforced concrete (PFRC) is in contrast to the limited amount of published research about its fracture behavior. This study assesses the main mechanical and fracture properties of PFRC by using conventional and self-compacting concrete with various
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The increase in the use of polyolefin fiber-reinforced concrete (PFRC) is in contrast to the limited amount of published research about its fracture behavior. This study assesses the main mechanical and fracture properties of PFRC by using conventional and self-compacting concrete with various dosages. The results highlight the significant performance of PFRC and revealed that improving its residual strength for small deformations would enhance its use for structural purposes. For that matter, a combination of polyolefin and steel-hooked fibers was used, improving the results and showing synergies between the two types of fibers that could be exploited for infrastructure applications. The significance of this research is, in addition to the characterization of PFRC, the optimum selection and definition of the proportions and characteristics of the types of fibers chosen for the combination. The results proved that, by combining hooked-steel fibers and macro-polyolefin fibers, it is possible to preserve the high-performance fresh properties and obtain a reliable behavior with synergies in the fracture results. The latter provides an efficient use of the materials, as well as a better mechanical behavior in both service and failure states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) for Infrastructure Applications)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Solid-State Drawing on Mechanical Properties and Hydrolytic Degradation of Melt-Spun Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) Tapes
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 523-538; doi:10.3390/fib3040523
Received: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of solid-state drawing on the morphology of melt-spun poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) tapes, and the accompanying changes in mechanical and degradation behaviour have been studied. Mechanical properties are found to be strongly dependent on both applied draw ratio and drawing temperature. Moduli
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The influence of solid-state drawing on the morphology of melt-spun poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) tapes, and the accompanying changes in mechanical and degradation behaviour have been studied. Mechanical properties are found to be strongly dependent on both applied draw ratio and drawing temperature. Moduli of these highly oriented tapes are significantly increased compared to as-extruded tapes at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Interestingly, drawing leads to a significant increase in elongation to break (~3 times) and toughness (~13 times) compared to as-extruded tapes. Structural and morphological characterization indicates strain-induced crystallization as well as an increase in orientation of the crystalline phase at small strains. Upon further stretching, an “overdrawing” regime is observed, with decreased crystalline orientation due to the breakage of existing crystals. For fixed draw ratios, a significant increase in Young’s modulus and tensile strength is observed with increasing drawing temperature, due to a higher crystallinity and orientation obtained for tapes drawn at higher temperatures. FT-IR results indicate no crystal transformation after drawing, with the α-form being observed in all tapes. Hydrolytic degradability of PLLA was significantly reduced by solid-state drawing. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Influence of CFRP Anchorage on Achieving Sectional Flexural Capacity of Strengthened Concrete Beams
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 539-559; doi:10.3390/fib3040539
Received: 17 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research program is intended to verify the influence of using distributed external U-wrap CFRP anchorage to shift the failure mode from overall debonding to sectional flexural failure for concrete beams externally bonded with CFRP sheets. Premature cover delamination and FRP debonding are
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This research program is intended to verify the influence of using distributed external U-wrap CFRP anchorage to shift the failure mode from overall debonding to sectional flexural failure for concrete beams externally bonded with CFRP sheets. Premature cover delamination and FRP debonding are predominant failure modes in FRP flexural strengthening that may be delayed or prevented by using FRP anchorage. The present experimental study aims to comparatively prove that proper anchorage of flexural strengthening is anticipated to yield a classical flexural failure by FRP rupture or concrete crushing. Once the cohesion of concrete and/or the adhesion with the FRP is exhausted, the U-wraps are engaged to provide anchorage to the flexural FRP through shear friction. Accordingly, three identical T beams and three identical rectangular beams were designed and constructed to examine the capacity improvement by preventing premature debonding failure. The first specimen in each series was tested as a control beam. The second specimen in each series was strengthened using five layers of flexural CFRP in order to admit a debonding failure. The third specimen in each series was strengthened with the same five layers of flexural CFRP plus additional transverse CFRP U-wraps. This study proved that it is possible to quantify the higher flexural capacity of CFRP strengthened beams using external anchorage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) for Infrastructure Applications)
Open AccessArticle Properties of PAN Fibers Solution Spun into a Chilled Coagulation Bath at High Solvent Compositions
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 560-574; doi:10.3390/fib3040560
Received: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
PDF Full-text (1062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, multifilament, continuous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber tow was solution spun mimicking industrial processing at the small pilot scale (0.5 k tow), while carefully altering the composition of the coagulation bath, in order to determine the effect on the resulting fiber shape,
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In this work, multifilament, continuous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber tow was solution spun mimicking industrial processing at the small pilot scale (0.5 k tow), while carefully altering the composition of the coagulation bath, in order to determine the effect on the resulting fiber shape, density, orientation, and tensile properties at varying points in the spinning process. Novel here are the abnormally high coagulation bath solvent compositions investigated, which surpass those often reported in the literature. In addition, the coagulation bath was maintained at a slightly chilled temperature, contrary to reported methods to produce round fibers. Further, by altering the composition of the bath in a step-wise fashion during a single spinning run, variations in all other process parameters were minimized. We found that with increasing solvent composition in the coagulation bath, the fibers not only became round in cross section, but also became smaller in diameter, which persisted down the spin line. With this decrease in diameter, all else equal, came an accompanying increase in apparent fiber density via a reduction in microvoid content. In addition, molecular orientation and tensile properties also increased. Therefore, it was found that inadequate understanding of the coagulation bath effects, and spinning at low coagulation bath solvent compositions, can hinder the ability of the fiber to reach optimum properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle Self-Folding Textiles through Manipulation of Knit Stitch Architecture
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 575-587; doi:10.3390/fib3040575
Received: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
PDF Full-text (1724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research presents a preliminary study on finding predictable methods of controlling the self-folding behaviors of weft knit textiles for use in the development of smart textiles and garment devices, such as those with shape memory, auxetic behavior or transformation abilities. In this
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This research presents a preliminary study on finding predictable methods of controlling the self-folding behaviors of weft knit textiles for use in the development of smart textiles and garment devices, such as those with shape memory, auxetic behavior or transformation abilities. In this work, Shima Seiki SDS-One Apex computer-aided knitting technology, Shima Seiki industrial knitting machines, and the study of paper origami tessellation patterns were used as tools to understand and predict the self-folding abilities of weft knit textiles. A wide range of self-folding weft knit structures was produced, and relationships between the angles and ratios of the knit and purl stitch types were determined. Mechanical testing was used as a means to characterize differences produced by stitch patterns, and to further understand the relationships between angles and folding abilities. By defining a formulaic method for predicting the nature of the folds that occur due to stitch architecture patterns, we can better design self-folding fabrics for smart textile applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Textiles)
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