Next Article in Journal
Basalt FRP Spike Repairing of Wood Beams
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Polymer Concentration, Rotational Speed, and Solvent Mixture on Fiber Formation Using Forcespinning®
Previous Article in Journal
Fabrication and Evaluation of Multilayer Nanofiber-Hydrogel Meshes with a Controlled Release Property
Article Menu

Export Article

Fibers 2015, 3(3), 309-322; doi:10.3390/fib3030309

Article
Eco-Friendly Disperse Dyeing and Functional Finishing of Nylon 6 Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Tarek Abou Elmaaty 1,*, Eman Abd El-Aziz 1, Jaehuyk Ma 2, Fathy El-Taweel 3 and Satoko Okubayashi 2
1
Department of Textile Dyeing & Finishing, Faculty of Applied Arts, Damietta University, Damietta 34512, Egypt
2
Department of Advanced Fibro Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science, Damietta University, Damietta 34512, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Tel./Fax: +20-572-353-098.
Academic Editor: Richard Kotek
Received: 13 June 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015

Abstract

: In this work, a supercritical carbon dioxide assembly was successfully constructed for dyeing Nylon6 fabric. Primary experiments were carried out to confirm the possibility of bringing the dyeing up to factory scale. A series of disperse azo dyes with potential antibacterial activity were applied to dye the fabric under our study in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The factors affecting the dyeing conditions (i.e., dye concentration, time, temperature and pressure) and functional properties were discussed and compared with those in aqueous dyeing. The comparison revealed that elimination of auxiliary chemicals such as salt, carrier or dispersing agent has no diverse effect on dyeing. The color strength of the dyed fabric evaluated by using K/S measurements increased by increasing dye concentration from 2% to 6% owf. (on weight of fabric). The nylon6 fabrics dyed in supercritical carbon dioxide have good fastness properties, and especially light fastness compared with conventional exhaustion dyeing. Antibacterial activity of the dyed samples under supercritical conditions was evaluated and the results showed excellent antibacterial efficiency.
Keywords:
eco-friendly disperse dyeing; polyamide 6 fabric; supercritical carbon dioxide; antimicrobial disperse dyeing; combined process

1. Introduction

Using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) instead of water in textile dyeing can preserve energy, lower water use and prevent pollution. This dyeing method offers many advantages compared with conventional aqueous dyeing; no carrier or dispersing agent is required, residual dyestuff can be collected and carbon dioxide can be recycled [1,2,3]. It is an environmentally friendly technique, as it may replace the traditional wet-dyeing method [4].

Polyamide fibers have particular properties such as high tensile strength, elasticity and good mechanical and chemical resistance, etc. Correspondingly, polyamide fabrics are utilized in considerable applications of the textile industry [5,6].

The dyeability of synthetic hydrophobic fibers such as polyamide, polyester, polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene in scCO2 poses a great challenge to dyestuff chemists. As a consequence in the last few decades, various researchers focused their efforts on the synthesis of new dyes for these fibers [7,8,9,10,11,12]. The success of dyeing synthetic textiles, particularly polyester [13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23], with disperse dyes in scCO2 prompted research application of this technique to other synthetic fibers such as polypropylene [24], and aramid fibers [25] or alternative natural fabrics like cotton [26,27,28].

However, only a limited number of studies have been published on dyeing of polyamide textiles using scCO2. The dyeing of nylon 6-6 with hydrophobic-reactive and disperse-reactive dyes using supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent was reported [29,30]; a covalent force was formed successfully between the terminal amine group of nylon6 6 and the vinylsulphone group of the dye molecule. The work indicated that both solubility and affinity have an effect on the dye uptake of nylon 6-6 with hydrophobic reactive and disperse-reactive dyes using supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent system. Light fastness was acceptable for common applications and washing fastness was superior.

In an earlier study [10], we explored the dyeing of polyester fabrics with antibacterial disperse–azo dyestuffs which were synthesized in our program, employing a supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing technique. Working with antibacterial dyes in textiles integrated the dyeing and finishing process and resulted in a more effective technique in terms of water and energy management. The obtained result showed that this process was absolutely as adequately efficient as the typical procedure and led us to study the behavior of the synthesized dyes on other synthetic fabrics. In this context, the purpose of this work was to provide a one-step dyeing and finishing process for nylon 6 fabrics with antimicrobial disperse dyes through supercritical processing.

2. Experimental Section

2.1. Fabric and Dyes

A 100% polyamide 6 plain plane weave fabric (70 g/m2) supplied by Shikisen-sha company (Osaka, Japan) was used as dyeing substrate. Figure 1 shows the chemical structure of dyes employed in our research and was prepared according to the literature [31].

Figure 1. The chemical structure of dyes.
Figure 1. The chemical structure of dyes.
Fibers 03 00309 g001 1024

2.2. Dyeing Apparatus

Figure 2 is a diagram of the whole apparatus. The liquefied CO2 departing from the cylinder moved inward to a cooling unit and was infused into a high-pressure syringe pump (model Jasco Pll-2880 plus, Jasco, Easton, PA, USA). High-pressure CO2 ultimately ran out into a dyeing autoclave. The dyeing autoclave (Jasco EV-3, Jasco, Easton, PA, USA) as shown in Figure 2 is a 50 cm3 stainless steel autoclave outfitted with a steel screw-tube, a pressure sealed magnetic stirrer, and a quick-release cap.

Figure 2. Supercritical CO2 apparatus.
Figure 2. Supercritical CO2 apparatus.
Fibers 03 00309 g002 1024

2.3. Procedures

2.3.1. ScCO2 Dyeing

Polyamide 6 fabric (usually 3 × 10 cm) was wrapped around a stainless steel cylinder coil bearing perforated holes (0.5 cm diameter) and seated inside the autoclave. The purified dye was loaded on the base of the surface of the cylinder, and the amount of dye used varied from 2% to 6% owf. The autoclave was then sealed and heated to the desired temperature. At the same time, CO2 was pumped through into the vessel and kept at a working pressure by stirring. The head temperature of the pump was maintained at −5 °C using a chiller. The circulation system was activated as the pressure reaches 10 MPa. The stream of the fluid was introduced using the magnetic drive under the column at 750 rpm. The fluid flowed from the inside to the outside of the cylinder. After a definite reaction time (1 hand 3 h), the CO2 released by shutting off the valve slowly until the pressure of the dyeing vessel reached atmospheric pressure. After dyeing, the fiber was removed, soaped at a temperature of 60 °C for 15 min, and then rinsed with water.

2.3.2. Aqueous Dyeing

As shown in Figure 3, the dye bath (1:20 liquor ratio) containing 5 g/dm3 carrier, 4% ammonium sulphate was adjusted to pH 5.5 and brought to 60 °C. The polyamide 6 fabric was added at this temperature and run for 15 min. 2.0% to 6.0% (owf.) of the dyes under our study were dissolved in a solution of (2 g/dm3), an anionic dispersing agent, followed by the dye being precipitated in a fine dispersion. The fine dispersion was then added, the temperature was raised to the boiling point over a period of 45 min, and dyeing was continued at the boiling point for about one hour. After dyeing, the samples were soaped with a detergent and some NaOH in a bath containing 2% nonionic detergent at a temperature of 60 °C for 15 min, then rinsed in water and dried at room temperature.

Figure 3. Exhaustion dyeing curve.
Figure 3. Exhaustion dyeing curve.
Fibers 03 00309 g003 1024

2.4. Measurements

Color strength (K/S) values of the dyed polyamide 6 fabrics were evaluated using the (Konica Minolta spectrophotometer CM-3600 d) spectrophotometer (Minolta, Tokyo, Japan).

Fastness properties, mainly washing, rubbing, and light fastness, of the dyed polyamide 6 fabrics were evaluated according to JIS L 0844, JIS L 0849, and JIS L 0842:2004 test methods, respectively [32,33,34].

The color parameters of the dyed polyamide fabric were measured using the (Konica Minolta spectrophotometer CM-3600 d) spectrophotometer. The following CIELAB coordinates were measured: lightness (L*), chroma (C*), hue (h), the degree of redness (+ve) and greenness (−ve) (a*), and the degree of yellowness (+ve) and blueness (−ve) (b*).

The antibacterial activity assessment on G+ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and G−ve bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was conducted qualitatively according to the AATCC Test Method (147-1988) and expressed as zone of growth inhibition ZI (mm).

2.5. Statistical Analysis

All tests have been performed by taking the average of three sample readings. The standard error of the mean was calculated according to the equation given below and found to be +(−) 0.1.

S E X ¯ = S n
where S = sample standard deviation, n = number of observations of the sample.

3. Results and Discussion

The main task of the current work is to introduce a one-step procedure for producing polyamide 6 fabric with antimicrobial functionality under supercritical carbon dioxide medium. The effect of dyeing parameters such as dye type, concentration, temperature, time and pressure as well as a comparison of the supercritical dyeing method with traditional aqueous dyeing have been investigated. The results obtained, along with appropriate discussion, are presented below.

3.1. Dyeing Properties of Hydazonopropanenitrile Dyes

3.1.1. Effect of Dye Concentration

Figure 4 shows that at the same dyeing conditions (120 °C, 15 MPa, 60 min), the color strength of nylon 6 fabric increased by increasing the dye concentration from 2% to 6% owf., but the increment in color depth becomes smaller when the concentration surpasses 4% for dyes number 2, 4 and 5. This may be attributed to the fact that these dyes have strong saturation at low concentration.

Figure 4. Effect of dye concentration.
Figure 4. Effect of dye concentration.
Fibers 03 00309 g004 1024

A comparison of color strength of the scCO2 and the aqueous dyed fabrics is shown in Figure 5. It was indicated that, without adding salt, carrier or dispersing agent, the appreciable color strength (K/S) of the samples dyed in scCO2 was superior to those dyed in water. It can be observed that in Figure 5a, the sample dyed with dye 1, 2 and 3 in scCO2 with 2% conc. has a higher K/S value than samples dyed in water with 6% dye conc. (Figure 5c). This may be attributed to the fact that dye uptake was improved by a large margin when using scCO2 as a dyeing medium. For dyes 4 and 5, both have higher K/S values in supercritical conditions than in water conditions, but with a smaller border than those detected in dyes 1, 2 and 3. This means dyeing in a scCO2 system exhibited significant advantages compared with traditional water dyeing. The exclusive dyeing procedure of the scCO2 system is the main reason [35].

Figure 5. Comparison of color strength of scCO2 and the aqueous dyeing (a) at 2% dye conc; (b) at 4% dye conc; (c) at 6% dye conc.
Figure 5. Comparison of color strength of scCO2 and the aqueous dyeing (a) at 2% dye conc; (b) at 4% dye conc; (c) at 6% dye conc.
Fibers 03 00309 g005 1024

3.1.2. Effect of Dyeing Temperature

As shown in Figure 6a, the dye adsorption or uptake, characterized as color strength of K/S, remarkably increased with increasing system temperature, especially for temperatures higher than 100 °C. The significant effect of temperature could be explained by the fact that, higher system temperatures lead to higher activities of the molecules of dyestuff and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid, as well as an increase in flexibility of the nylon polymer chains. The rubbery and amorphous regions of the polymer were increased compared to the harder and more brittle areas, resulting in greater permeability of the dye molecules [4,36].

Figure 6. (a) Effect of dyeing temperature; (b) Effect of dyeing pressure.
Figure 6. (a) Effect of dyeing temperature; (b) Effect of dyeing pressure.
Fibers 03 00309 g006 1024

3.1.3. Effect of Dyeing Pressure

As shown in Figure 6b, the dye uptake expressed as the color strength K/S was remarkably improved with an increasing system pressure. This behavior could be made clear by the fact that increasing system pressure led to an increase in the density of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid, which consequently increased its solvent power. Hence the dyes could be readily dissolved, as well as enhancing swelling of the nylon fibers in the supercritical dyeing medium, resulting in a higher dye adsorption and enhancement in color strength value [36].

3.1.4. Effect of Dyeing Time

The relationship between dye adsorption and dyeing time (1hand3h) in scCO2 is demonstrated in Figure 7a–c. It is seen that dye uptake expressed as color strength (K/S) increased with increasing dyeing time, at all dye concentrations (2%, 4% and 6%). The improvement in K/S values reflected the positive impact of increasing dyeing time which led to an adequate and uniform adsorption of the dye by the fibers, as well as uniform penetration and diffusion of the dye into the fabric, which resulted in the enhancement of the uptake of the dye into the fabric [36,37]. However, this result was not consistent with all dyes, since the K/S value of the fabric dyed with dye 2 for 1 h is higher than that of the fabric dyed with dye 2 for 3 h as shown in Figure 7a. This may be attributed to the decomposition of the dye with prolonged heating leading to a lower K/S value.

Figure 7. (a) Effect of dyeing time at 2% dye conc; (b) at 4% dye conc; (c) at 6% dye conc.
Figure 7. (a) Effect of dyeing time at 2% dye conc; (b) at 4% dye conc; (c) at 6% dye conc.
Fibers 03 00309 g007 1024

3.2. Color Fastness

The color fastness of the dyed nylon 6 fabrics with the proposed dyes was evaluated and recorded in Table 1. The washing fastness rating of the dyed nylon 6 fabric under supercritical medium was excellent for both fading and staining with ratings ranging from 4 to 5, while those of exhaustion dyeing were excellent for staining and ranged from moderate to excellent for fading (2–5). This result is probably due the high affinity of the colored hydrazonopropanenitrile dyes for nylon 6 fibers. Furthermore, all the dyed fabrics presented very good rubbing fastness, indicating good diffusion and penetration of the dyes under our study into fiber substrates. Nevertheless, the poor light fastness of all the water dyed fabrics was noticed. On the contrary, the dyed nylon 6 fabrics under supercritical conditions had relatively excellent light fastness (rating 4–5), which should be attributed to its higher level of dye molecule aggregation and superior depth of shade.

Table 1. Fastness properties of dyed nylon 6 samples.
Table 1. Fastness properties of dyed nylon 6 samples.
Dye ScCO2 Dyeing Aqueous Dyeing
Rubbing FastnessWashing FastnessLight FastnessRubbing FastnessWashing FastnessLight Fastness
Color ChangeStainingColor ChangeStaining
155545551–2
24–55545551
34–5554–52–3551
44–54–554–53–42–351
554–55542–341–2
Table 2. Antibacterial activity of dyed samples.
Table 2. Antibacterial activity of dyed samples.
DyeZI of the Dyed Nylon in scCO2ZI of the Dyed Nylon in Water
G-veG+veG-veG+ve
Pseudomonas AeruginosaEscherichia coliBacillussubtilisStaphylococcus AureusPseudomonasaeruginosaEscherichia coliBacillussubtilisStaphylococcus S. aureus
11213131312131213
21312141312131413
31413141313131313
41312141312121213
51211121111111211

ZI: zone of inhibition.

3.3. Antimicrobial Activity

The antimicrobial activities of the nylon fabric samples dyed in both supercritical and water media were screened using an agar-well diffusion technique against four different microbial cultures. The antimicrobial results (Table 2) attained were found to be fairly good owing to the presence of potentially active function groups, e.g., chloro, cyano and antipyrine moiety in the structure of dyes [38]. The results can be interpreted in terms of nonspecific action, i.e., antibacterial activity can be achieved either by causing damage to bacterial cells or by means of restriction of a specific bacterial target [39]. The dyeing technique has practically no effect on the imparted antimicrobial properties.

3.4. Color Assessment

The color of the supercritical dyed nylon 6 fabrics was evaluated using the CIELAB system in terms of L*, a*, and b* (Table 3). The color coordinates recorded in Table 3 indicated that the dye has good affinity for nylon 6 fabric and favored the following characteristics:

The dyes in our study displayed good affinity for nylon 6 fabrics at the given temperature and present generally bright and deep hues ranging from yellow to orange.

The color hues of the dyes on nylon 6 fabrics were shifted towards the yellowish direction on the yellow-blue axis according to the positive values of b*.

The color hues of the dyes on nylon 6 fabric were shifted towards the greenish direction on the red- green axis as indicated from the negative value of a*.

Table 3. Color coordinates of the dyed nylon samples.
Table 3. Color coordinates of the dyed nylon samples.
DyeL*C*Ha*b*
188.1179.197.84−10.7978.36
290.7590.34100.11−12.488.94
392.1276.33102.71−16.7974.46
490.0495.1199.76−14.3183.16
592.7381.86102.51−17.6979.75

4. Conclusions

The conventional dyeing process using water as a solvent has drawbacks. Different agents have to be added for treatment of hydrophobic material; after dyeing, a consequent drying process with high energy consumption is imperative; and a large amount of wastewater is used. In contrast, dyeing with scCO2 is water-free. The results confirm that hydrazonopropanenitrile azo dyes are convenient for dyeing nylon6 fabrics in scCO2 and help expand the application of supercritical technology. The innovative supercritical model was designed for cleaner production of antimicrobial nylon6 fabrics.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to express their deep appreciation to the STDF (Science and Technological Development Fund) in Egypt and the Kyoto Institute of Technology in Japan for their help, which enabled this work to be carried out.

Author Contributions

Satoko Okubayashi and Tarek Abou Elmaaty designed experiments; Fathy El-Taweel synthesized the dyes; Eman Abd El-Aziz and Jaehuyk Ma performed the experiments; Tarek Abou Elmaaty and Eman Abd El-Aziz wrote the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Bach, E.; Cleve, E.; Schollmeyer, E. Past, present and future of supercritical fluid dyeing technology—An overview. Rev. Prog. Color. 2002, 32, 88–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Banchero, M. Supercritical fluid dyeing of synthetic and natural textiles—A review. Color. Technol. 2012, 129, 2–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Montero, G.A.; Smith, C.B.; Hendrix, W.A.; Butcher, D.L. Supercritical Fluid Technology in Textile Processing: An Overview. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000, 39, 4806–4812. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Miah, L.; Ferdous, N.; Azad, M.M. Textiles Material Dyeing with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (CO2) without Using Water. Chem. Mater. Res. 2013, 3, 38–40. [Google Scholar]
  5. Makhlouf, C.; Ladhari, N.; Roudesli, S.; Sakly, F. Influence of grafting with acrylic acid on the dyeing properties of polyamide 6.6 fibres. Color. Technol. 2012, 128, 176–183. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Bahtiyari, M.I. Laser modification of polyamide fabrics. Opt. Laser Technol. 2011, 43, 114–118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Giorgi, M.R.D.; Cadoni, E.; Maricca, D.; Piras, A. Dyeing polyester fibres with disperse dyes in supercritical CO2. Dye. Pigment. 2000, 45, 75–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Gharanjig, K.; Arami, M.; Bahrami, H.; Movassagh, B.; Mahmoodi, N.M.; Rouhani, S. Synthesis, spectral properties and application of novel monoazo disperse dyes derived from N-ester-1,8-naphthalimide to polyester. Dye. Pigment. 2008, 76, 684–689. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Miyazaki, K.; Tabatab, I.; Horia, T. Relationship between colour fastness and colour strength of polypropylene fabrics dyed in supercritical carbon dioxide: Effect of chemical structure in 1, 4-bis (alkylamino)anthraquinone dyestuffs on dyeing performance. Color. Technol. 2011, 128, 60–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Abou Elmaaty, T.; Ma, J.; El-Taweel, F.; Abd El-Aziz, E.; Okubayashi, S. Facile Bifunctional Dyeing of Polyester under Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium with New Antibacterial Hydrazono Propanenitrile Dyes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2014, 53, 15566–15570. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Miyazaki, K.; Tabatab, I.; Horia, T. Effects of molecular structure on dyeing performance and colour fastness of yellow dyestuffs applied to polypropylene fibres in supercritical carbon dioxide. Color. Technol. 2011, 128, 51–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Ehrhardt, A.; Tabata, I.; Hisada, K.; Hori, T. Impregnation of hydroxy-anthraquinone compounds into polypropylene fabrics by scCO2 and the sorption ability for metal ions. Sen’i Gakkaishi 2005, 61, 201–203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Kima, T.K.; Sonb, Y.A.; Limc, Y.J. Affinity of disperse dyes on poly (ethylene terephthalate) in non-aqueous media: Part 1. Adsorption and solubility properties. Dye. Pigment. 2005, 64, 73–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Kima, T.K.; Son, Y.A. Affinity of disperse dyes on poly (ethylene terephthalate) in non-aqueous media. Part 2: Effect of substituents. Dye. Pigment. 2005, 66, 19–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Özcan, A.S.; Özcan, A. Adsorption behavior of a disperse dye on polyester in supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Supercrit. Fluid. 2005, 35, 133–139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Banchero, M.; Ferri, A.; Manna, L. The phase partition of disperse dyes in the dyeing of polyethylene terephthalate with a supercritical CO2/methanol mixture. J. Supercrit. Fluid. 2009, 48, 72–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Banchero, M.; Ferri, A.; Manna, L.; Sicardi, S. Dye uptake and partition ratio of disperse dyes between a PET yarn and supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Supercrit. Fluid. 2006, 37, 107–114. [Google Scholar]
  18. Tabata, I.; Lyu, J.; Cho, S.; Tominaga, T.; Hori, T. Relationship between the solubility of disperse dyes and the equilibrium dye adsorption in supercritical fluid dyeing. Color. Technol. 2001, 117, 346–351. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Kawahara, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Sugiura, K.; Ogawa, S.; Kikutani, T. Dyeing behavior of high-speed spun poly (ethylene terephthalate) fibers in supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Macromol. Sci. Part B Phys. 2001, 40, 189–197. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Bao, P.; Dai, J. Relationships between the Solubility of C.I. Disperse Red 60 and Uptake on PET in Supercritical CO2. J. Chem. Eng. Data 2005, 50, 838–842. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Hou, A.; Xie, K.; Dai, J. Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Dyeing Conditions on the Chemical and Morphological Changes of Poly (ethylene terephthalate) Fibers. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2004, 92, 2008–2012. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Filho, L.C.; Mazzer, H.R.; Santos, J.C.; Andreaus, J.; Feihrmann, A.C.; Beninca, C.; Cabral, V.F.; Zanoelo, E.F. Dyeing of polyethylene terephthalate fibers with a disperse dye in supercritical carbon dioxide. Text. Res. J. 2014, 84, 1279–1287. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Kraan, M.V.D.; Cid, M.V.F.; Woerlee, G.F.; Veugelers, W.J.T.; Witkamp, G.J. Equilibrium Study on the Disperse Dyeing of Polyester Textile in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Text. Res. J. 2007, 7, 550–558. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Liao, S.K.; Chang, P.S.; Lin, Y.C. Analysis on the Dyeing of Polypropylene Fibers in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. J. Polym. Res. 2000, 7, 155–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Kim, T.; Kim, G.; Park, J.Y.; Lim, J.S.; Yoo, K.P. Solubility Measurement and Dyeing Performance Evaluation of Aramid NOMEX Yarn by Dispersed Dyes in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2006, 45, 3425–3433. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Gao, D.; Yang, D.F.; Cui, H.S.; Huang, T.T.; Lin, J.X. Synthesis and Measurement of Solubilities of Reactive Disperse Dyes for Dyeing Cotton Fabrics in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2014, 53, 13862–13870. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. 0zcan, A.S.; Clifford, A.A.; Bartlea, K.D.; Lewis, D.M. Dyeing of Cotton Fibres with Disperse Dyes in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Dye. Pigment. 1998, 36, 103–110. [Google Scholar]
  28. Beltrame, P.L.; Castelli, A.; Selli, E.; Mossa, A.; Testa, G.; Bonfattic, A.M.; Seves, A. Dyeing of Cotton in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Dye. Pigment. 1998, 39, 335–340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Liao, S.K.; Ho, Y.C.; Chang, P.S. Dyeing of nylon 66 with a disperse-reactive dye using supercritical carbon dioxide as the transport medium. JSDC 2000, 116, 403–407. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Liao, S.K. Dyeing Nylon-6,6 with Some Hydrophobic Reactive Dyes by Supercritical Processing. J. Polym. Res. 2004, 11, 285–291. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Abou Elmaaty, T.; El-Taweel, F.; Abd El-Aziz, E.; Yuesf, M.; Okubayashi, S. Facile bifunctional dyeing of polyester fabrics with new antibacterial β-oxoalkanenitriles disperse dyes. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 2014, 5, 703–706. [Google Scholar]
  32. JIS L 0844: Test Methods for Color Fastness to Washing and Laundering; Japanese Standards Association: Minato-ku, Tokyo; Suga Weathering Technology Foundation: Tokyo, Japan, 2011.
  33. JIS L 0849: Test Methods for Color Fastness to Rubbing; Japanese Standards Association: Minato-ku, Tokyo; Suga Weathering Technology Foundation: Tokyo, Japan, 2013.
  34. JIS L 0842: Test Methods for Colour Fastness to Enclosed Carbon Arc Lamp Light; Japanese Standards Association: Minato-ku, Tokyo; Suga Weathering Technology Foundation: Tokyo, Japan, 2004.
  35. Hou, A.; Chen, B.; Dai, J.; Zhang, K. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent to replace water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric dyeing procedures. J. Clean. Prod. 2010, 18, 1009–1014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Long, J.J.; Ma, Y.Q.; Zhao, J.P. Investigations on the level dyeing of fabrics in supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Supercrit. Fluid. 2011, 57, 80–86. [Google Scholar]
  37. Hou, A.; Dai, J. Kinetics of dyeing of polyester with CI Disperse Blue 79 in supercritical carbon dioxide. Color. Technol. 2005, 121, 18–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Elattar, K.M. Synthesis of Novel Azo Disperse dyes Derived from 4-Aminoantipyrine and their Applications to Polyester Fabrics. Am. J. Org. Chem. 2012, 2, 52–57. [Google Scholar]
  39. Ibrahim, N.A.; Eid, B.M.; Abou Elmaaty, T.M.; Abd El-Aziz, E. A smart approach to add antibacterial functionality to cellulosic pigment prints. Carbohyd. Polym. 2013, 94, 612–618. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fibers EISSN 2079-6439 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top