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Fibers, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2015), Pages 197-379

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Research

Open AccessArticle An in vitro Evaluation on a Novel Root Canal Cleansing Method by Using Nylon Fibers
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 197-205; doi:10.3390/fib3030197
Received: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 2 July 2015
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Abstract
Despite traditional metal-based dental files, such as NiTi being demonstrated effective in root cleaning, the tooth structure is always damaged. Thus, to fulfill the need for a minimally invasive tool for contemporary endodontics and dentistry, the use of polymer fibers might provide a
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Despite traditional metal-based dental files, such as NiTi being demonstrated effective in root cleaning, the tooth structure is always damaged. Thus, to fulfill the need for a minimally invasive tool for contemporary endodontics and dentistry, the use of polymer fibers might provide a good option, as it is soft, fabricable, and disposable. In this study, two types of nylon fibers with respective average diameters of 206.9 µm (fiber W) and 156.4 µm (fiber B), respectively, were used as dental files, and mounted onto either a reciprocating or a low-speed rotary hand-piece. In vitro, simulated root canal models were colored red using nail varnish, and then cleaned by the fiber files mounted on the hand-pieces. Three parts of the simulated models, i.e., the apical third, the medium third, and the coronal third, were chosen to assess the cleaning the efficiency (CE) of each specimen by calculating the ratio of the cross-sectional area changes, before and after cleansing, using micro-Computer Tomography (CT). A NiTi file with a low-speed hand-piece was used as a control. SEM was used to observe the nylon fiber surfaces before and after the cleansing. Micro-CT results showed that for both the nylon fibers, W and B, an average CE of 82.11% ± 9.68% for the medium third could be achieved, which is statistically higher (p < 0.01) than the coronal third and apical third. The cleansing efficiency was not affected by, the types of fibers, nor the hand-pieces according to student’s t-test. Most of the nylon fibers could withstand deformation after the cleansing. To conclude, nylon fiber files have demonstrated a certain cleansing efficiency in simulated root canals, and micro-CT is a promising method to assess CE. Full article
Open AccessArticle Kinetics of Thermally Activated Physical Processes in Disordered Media
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 206-252; doi:10.3390/fib3030206
Received: 7 January 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe a framework for modeling the writing and erasure of thermally-distributed activated processes that we can specifically apply to UV-induced refractive index change, particularly in fibers. From experimental measurements (isochrons and/or isotherms), this framework allows to find the distribution function of the
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We describe a framework for modeling the writing and erasure of thermally-distributed activated processes that we can specifically apply to UV-induced refractive index change, particularly in fibers. From experimental measurements (isochrons and/or isotherms), this framework allows to find the distribution function of the activation energy by providing only a constant, which can be determined by a simple variable change when a few assumptions are fulfilled. From this modeling, it is possible to know the complete evolution in time of the system. It is also possible to determine the annealing conditions for extending a lifetime. This approach can also be used for other physical quantities, such as photodarkening, stress relaxation, and luminescence decay, provided that it can be described by a distribution function. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigating the Influence of Extracellular Matrix and Glycolytic Metabolism on Muscle Stem Cell Migration on Their Native Fiber Environment
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 253-264; doi:10.3390/fib3030253
Received: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
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Abstract
The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle fibers is a unique environment that supports the regenerative capacity of satellite cells; the resident stem cell population. The impact of environment has great bearing on key properties permitting satellite cells to carry
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The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle fibers is a unique environment that supports the regenerative capacity of satellite cells; the resident stem cell population. The impact of environment has great bearing on key properties permitting satellite cells to carry out tissue repair. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the ECM and glycolytic metabolism on satellite cell emergence and migration—two early processes required for muscle repair. Our results show that both influence the rate at which satellite cells emerge from the sub-basal lamina position and their rate of migration. These studies highlight the necessity of performing analysis of satellite behavior on their native substrate and will inform on the production of artificial scaffolds intended for medical uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibers for Biomedical Applications)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Engineered Peptide-Glycosaminoglycan Microfibrous Hybrid Scaffolds for Potential Applications in Cartilage Tissue Regeneration
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 265-295; doi:10.3390/fib3030265
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (992 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advances in tissue engineering have enabled the ability to design and fabricate biomaterials at the nanoscale that can actively mimic the natural cellular environment of host tissue. Of all tissues, cartilage remains difficult to regenerate due to its avascular nature. Herein we have
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Advances in tissue engineering have enabled the ability to design and fabricate biomaterials at the nanoscale that can actively mimic the natural cellular environment of host tissue. Of all tissues, cartilage remains difficult to regenerate due to its avascular nature. Herein we have developed two new hybrid polypeptide-glycosaminoglycan microfibrous scaffold constructs and compared their abilities to stimulate cell adhesion, proliferation, sulfated proteoglycan synthesis and soluble collagen synthesis when seeded with chondrocytes. Both constructs were designed utilizing self-assembled Fmoc-protected valyl cetylamide nanofibrous templates. The peptide components of the constructs were varied. For Construct I a short segment of dentin sialophosphoprotein followed by Type I collagen were attached to the templates using the layer-by-layer approach. For Construct II, a short peptide segment derived from the integrin subunit of Type II collagen binding protein expressed by chondrocytes was attached to the templates followed by Type II collagen. To both constructs, we then attached the natural polymer N-acetyl glucosamine, chitosan. Subsequently, the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate was then attached as the final layer. The scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro culture studies were carried out in the presence of chondrocyte cells for both scaffolds and growth morphology was determined through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy taken at different magnifications at various days of culture. Cell proliferation studies indicated that while both constructs were biocompatible and supported the growth and adhesion of chondrocytes, Construct II stimulated cell adhesion at higher rates and resulted in the formation of three dimensional cell-scaffold matrices within 24 h. Proteoglycan synthesis, a hallmark of chondrocyte cell differentiation, was also higher for Construct II compared to Construct I. Soluble collagen synthesis was also found to be higher for Construct II. The results of the above studies suggest that scaffolds designed from Construct II be superior for potential applications in cartilage tissue regeneration. The peptide components of the constructs play an important role not only in the mechanical properties in developing the scaffolds but also control cell adhesion, collagen synthesis and proteoglycan synthesis capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Evaluation of Multilayer Nanofiber-Hydrogel Meshes with a Controlled Release Property
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 296-308; doi:10.3390/fib3030296
Received: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Controlled release drug delivery systems enable the sustained release of bioactive molecules, and increase bioavailability over an extended length of time. Biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers and alginate hydrogel play a significant role in designing controlled release systems. Prolonged
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Controlled release drug delivery systems enable the sustained release of bioactive molecules, and increase bioavailability over an extended length of time. Biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers and alginate hydrogel play a significant role in designing controlled release systems. Prolonged release of bioactive molecules is observed when these polymer materials are used as matrices independently. However, there has not been a report in the literature that shows how different molecules are released at various rates over time. The goal of this study is to demonstrate a novel drug delivery system that has a property of releasing designated drugs at various rates over a defined length of time. We fabricated multilayer nanofiber-hydrogel meshes using electrospun PCL nanofiber and alginate hydrogel, and evaluated their controlled release properties. The multilayer meshes are composed of sandwiched layers of alternating PCL nanofibers and alginate hydrogel. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), encapsulated in the designated hydrogel layers, is used as a mock drug for the release study. The exposed top layer of the meshes demonstrates a dramatically higher burst release and shorter release time compared to the deeper layers. Such properties of the different layers within the meshes can be employed to achieve the release of multiple drugs at different rates over a specified length of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Eco-Friendly Disperse Dyeing and Functional Finishing of Nylon 6 Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 309-322; doi:10.3390/fib3030309
Received: 13 June 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a supercritical carbon dioxide assembly was successfully constructed for dyeing Nylon6 fabric. Primary experiments were carried out to confirm the possibility of bringing the dyeing up to factory scale. A series of disperse azo dyes with potential antibacterial activity were
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In this work, a supercritical carbon dioxide assembly was successfully constructed for dyeing Nylon6 fabric. Primary experiments were carried out to confirm the possibility of bringing the dyeing up to factory scale. A series of disperse azo dyes with potential antibacterial activity were applied to dye the fabric under our study in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The factors affecting the dyeing conditions (i.e., dye concentration, time, temperature and pressure) and functional properties were discussed and compared with those in aqueous dyeing. The comparison revealed that elimination of auxiliary chemicals such as salt, carrier or dispersing agent has no diverse effect on dyeing. The color strength of the dyed fabric evaluated by using K/S measurements increased by increasing dye concentration from 2% to 6% owf. (on weight of fabric). The nylon6 fabrics dyed in supercritical carbon dioxide have good fastness properties, and especially light fastness compared with conventional exhaustion dyeing. Antibacterial activity of the dyed samples under supercritical conditions was evaluated and the results showed excellent antibacterial efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Forming Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Basalt FRP Spike Repairing of Wood Beams
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 323-337; doi:10.3390/fib3030323
Received: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
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Abstract
This article describes aspects within an experimental program aimed at improving the structural performance of cracked solid fir-wood beams repaired with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) spikes. Fir wood is characterized by its low density, low compression strength, and high level of defects,
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This article describes aspects within an experimental program aimed at improving the structural performance of cracked solid fir-wood beams repaired with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) spikes. Fir wood is characterized by its low density, low compression strength, and high level of defects, and it is likely to distort when dried and tends to fail under tension due to the presence of cracks, knots, or grain deviation. The proposed repair technique consists of the insertion of BFRP spikes into timber beams to restore the continuity of cracked sections. The experimental efforts deal with the evaluation of the bending strength and deformation properties of 24 timber beams. An artificially simulated cracking was produced by cutting the wood beams in half or notching. The obtained results for the repaired beams were compared with those of solid undamaged and damaged beams, and increases of beam capacity, bending strength and of modulus of elasticity, and analysis of failure modes was discussed. For notched beams, the application of the BFRP spikes was able to restore the original bending capacity of undamaged beams, while only a small part of the original capacity was recovered for beams that were cut in half. Full article
Open AccessArticle Surface-Initiated Graft Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate from Chitin Nanofiber Macroinitiator under Dispersion Conditions
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 338-347; doi:10.3390/fib3030338
Received: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 27 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface-initiated graft atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from self-assembled chitin nanofibers (CNFs) was performed under dispersion conditions. Self-assembled CNFs were initially prepared by regeneration from a chitin ion gel with 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide using methanol; the product was then converted
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Surface-initiated graft atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from self-assembled chitin nanofibers (CNFs) was performed under dispersion conditions. Self-assembled CNFs were initially prepared by regeneration from a chitin ion gel with 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide using methanol; the product was then converted into the chitin nanofiber macroinitiator by reaction with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide in a dispersion containing N,N-dimethylformamide. Surface-initiated graft ATRP of MMA from the initiating sites on the CNFs was subsequently carried out under dispersion conditions, followed by filtration to obtain the CNF-graft-polyMMA film. Analysis of the product confirmed the occurrence of the graft ATRP on the surface of the CNFs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of pH on Morphology and Structure during Hydrolytic Degradation of the Segmented GL-b-[GL-co-TMC-co-CL]-b-GL Copolymer
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 348-372; doi:10.3390/fib3030348
Received: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 8 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrolytic degradation in media having a continuous variation of pH from 2 to 12 was studied for a copolymer having two polyglycolide hard blocks and a middle soft segment constituted by glycolide, trimethylene carbonate, and ɛ-caprolactone units. The last units were susceptible to
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Hydrolytic degradation in media having a continuous variation of pH from 2 to 12 was studied for a copolymer having two polyglycolide hard blocks and a middle soft segment constituted by glycolide, trimethylene carbonate, and ɛ-caprolactone units. The last units were susceptible to cross-linking reactions by γ irradiation that led to an increase of the molecular weight of the sample. Nevertheless, the susceptibility to hydrolytic degradation was enhanced with respect to non-irradiated samples and consequently such samples were selected to analyze the degradation process through weight loss measurements and the evaluation of changes on molecular weight, morphology, and SAXS patterns. Results reflected the different hydrolytic mechanisms that took place in acid and basic media and the different solubilization of the degradation products. Thus, degradation was faster and solubilization higher in the basic media. In this case, fibers showed a high surface erosion and the formation of both longitudinal and deep circumferential cracks that contrasted with the peeling process detected at intermediate pHs (from 6 to 8) and the absence of longitudinal cracks at low pHs. SAXS measurements indicated that degradation was initiated through the hydrolysis of the irregular molecular folds placed on the amorphous interlamellar domains but also affected lamellar crystals at the last stages. Subsequent heating processes performed with degraded samples were fundamental to reveal the changes in microstructure that occurred during degradation and even the initial lamellar arrangement. In particular, the presence of interfibrillar domains and the disposition of lamellar domains at different levels along the fiber axis for a determined cross-section were evidenced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Polyethylene-Based Carbon Fibers by the Use of Sulphonation for Stabilization
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 373-379; doi:10.3390/fib3030373
Received: 2 July 2015 / Revised: 23 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyethylene has great potential as an alternative material for carbon fiber production. Polyethylene can be processed in the economic melt spinning process. These precursors are prepared for the subsequent process step of carbonization by using chemical stabilization (sulphonation). The strategy is to adjust
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Polyethylene has great potential as an alternative material for carbon fiber production. Polyethylene can be processed in the economic melt spinning process. These precursors are prepared for the subsequent process step of carbonization by using chemical stabilization (sulphonation). The strategy is to adjust these precursor properties by the melt spinning process, thus resulting in a precursor, which can be stabilized sufficiently by sulphonation. The objective is to find the correlation between precursor properties and the results of the sulphonation. In this paper, the chemical stabilization is described and the results of the chemical stabilization are discussed. The novelty in this paper is that the results of the sulphonation are brought in correlation with the precursor properties. It can be shown that the filament diameter and the polymer structure (e.g., the crystallinity) of the precursor have an influence on the sulphonation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)

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