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Coatings 2017, 7(7), 102; doi:10.3390/coatings7070102

Ti-SLActive and TiZr-SLActive Dental Implant Surfaces Promote Fast Osteoblast Differentiation

1
Department of Oral, Maxillary, Facial and Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, University Hospital of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
2
Department of Immunology, Institute for Biological Research “Sinisa Stankovic”, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Surface: Science and Technology)
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Abstract

A primary goal in modern surface modification technology of dental implants is to achieve biocompatible surfaces with rapid but controlled healing which also allow health and longevity of implants. In order to realize all, understanding of osseointegration phenomena is crucial. Although Ti-SLA, Ti-SLActive and TiZr-SLActive surfaces have been successfully used in clinical implantology and were shown to notably reduce the primary healing time, available in vitro studies are sparse and do not concern or explore the mechanism(s) involved in human osteoblast behavior on these surfaces. Ti-SLA, Ti-SLActive, TiZr-SLActive, Ti cp, Ticer and Cercon surfaces were used. Osteoblast proliferation, cell cluster formation, morphological changes, induction of autophagy, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) formation, osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and collagen type I (Col-1) affected by various surfaces were analyzed. These surfaces induced formation of mature osteoblasts caused by elevated oxidative stress (ROS) followed by overexpression of osteoblast maturation key molecule (NO), with different intensity however. These mature osteoblasts induced upregulation of OC, BSP and Col-1, activating PI3/Akt signalling pathway resulting in autophagy, known as an important process in differentiation of osteoblast cells. Additional distinctive subpopulation identified on Ticer, Ti-SLA (after 5 days), Ti-SLActive and TiZr-SLActive surfaces (after 2 days) were forming cell clusters, essential for bone noduli formation and mineralisation. The results suggest that Ti- and TiZr-SLActive possess advanced properties in comparison with Ticer and Ti-SLA manifested as accelerated osteoblast differentiation. These effects could explain already known fast osseointegration of these surfaces in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: implant surfaces; osteoblast; Ticer; SLA; autophagy implant surfaces; osteoblast; Ticer; SLA; autophagy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kaluđerović, M.R.; Krajnović, T.; Maksimović-Ivanić, D.; Graf, H.-L.; Mijatović, S. Ti-SLActive and TiZr-SLActive Dental Implant Surfaces Promote Fast Osteoblast Differentiation. Coatings 2017, 7, 102.

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