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Coatings 2015, 5(1), 54-62; doi:10.3390/coatings5010054

Role of Cl on Diffusion of Cu in In2S3 Layers Prepared by Ion Layer Gas Reaction Method

1
Physics Department, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega-50100, Kenya
2
Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi-30197, Kenya
3
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Lavacchi
Received: 27 December 2014 / Revised: 7 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
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Abstract

Ion layer gas reaction (ILGAR) method allows for deposition of Cl-containing and Cl-free In2S3 layers from InCl3 and In(OCCH3CHOCCH3)3 precursor salts, respectively. A comparative study was performed to investigate the role of Cl on the diffusion of Cu from CuSCN source layer into ILGAR deposited In2S3 layers. The Cl concentration was varied between 7 and 14 at.% by varying deposition parameters. The activation energies and exponential pre-factors for Cu diffusion in Cl-containing samples were between 0.70 to 0.78 eV and between 6.0 × 10−6 and 3.2 × 10−5 cm2/s. The activation energy in Cl-free ILGAR In2S3 layers was about three times less compared to the Cl-containing In2S3, and the pre-exponential constant six orders of magnitude lower. These values were comparable to those obtained from thermally evaporated In2S3 layers. The residual Cl-occupies S sites in the In2S3 structure leading to non-stoichiometry and hence different diffusion mechanism for Cu compared to stoichiometric Cl-free layers. View Full-Text
Keywords: diffusion; ILGAR; In2S3; CuSCN diffusion; ILGAR; In2S3; CuSCN
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wafula, H.; Robinson, M.; Juma, A.; Sakwa, T.; Kitui, M.; Araoz, R.; Fischer, C.-H. Role of Cl on Diffusion of Cu in In2S3 Layers Prepared by Ion Layer Gas Reaction Method. Coatings 2015, 5, 54-62.

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