Next Article in Journal
Streptomyces Differentiation in Liquid Cultures as a Trigger of Secondary Metabolism
Previous Article in Journal
Unraveling Nutritional Regulation of Tacrolimus Biosynthesis in Streptomyces tsukubaensis through omic Approaches
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Antibiotics 2018, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7020040

Toxicological Assessment of a Lignin Core Nanoparticle Doped with Silver as an Alternative to Conventional Silver Core Nanoparticles

1
Department of Environmental & Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
3
Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute, Corvallis, OR 97330, USA
4
School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1163 KB, uploaded 4 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Elevated levels of silver in the environment are anticipated with an increase in silver nanoparticle (AgNP) production and use in consumer products. To potentially reduce the burden of silver ion release from conventional solid core AgNPs, a lignin-core particle doped with silver ions and surface-stabilized with a polycationic electrolyte layer was engineered. Our objective was to determine whether any of the formulation components elicit toxicological responses using embryonic zebrafish. Ionic silver and free surface stabilizer were the most toxic constituents, although when associated separately or together with the lignin core particles, the toxicity of the formulations decreased significantly. The overall toxicity of lignin formulations containing silver was similar to other studies on a silver mass basis, and led to a significantly higher prevalence of uninflated swim bladder and yolk sac edema. Comparative analysis of dialyzed samples which had leached their loosely bound Ag+, showed a significant increase in mortality immediately after dialysis, in addition to eliciting significant increases in types of sublethal responses relative to the freshly prepared non-dialyzed samples. ICP-OES/MS analysis indicated that silver ion release from the particle into solution was continuous, and the rate of release differed when the surface stabilizer was not present. Overall, our study indicates that the lignin core is an effective alternative to conventional solid core AgNPs for potentially reducing the burden of silver released into the environment from a variety of consumer products. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanotechnology; environmentally-friendly; pesticide; antimicrobial; zebrafish nanotechnology; environmentally-friendly; pesticide; antimicrobial; zebrafish
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nix, C.E.; Harper, B.J.; Conner, C.G.; Richter, A.P.; Velev, O.D.; Harper, S.L. Toxicological Assessment of a Lignin Core Nanoparticle Doped with Silver as an Alternative to Conventional Silver Core Nanoparticles. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 40.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Antibiotics EISSN 2079-6382 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top