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Antibiotics 2016, 5(4), 33; doi:10.3390/antibiotics5040033

The Peptidoglycan Pattern of Staphylococcus carnosus TM300—Detailed Analysis and Variations Due to Genetic and Metabolic Influences

1
Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine Tübingen (IMIT) — Microbial Genetics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28 E, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
2
Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine Tübingen (IMIT) — Infection Biology, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28 E, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
3
Center for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP), University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 32, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Waldemar Vollmer
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Cell Wall as Antimicrobial Target)
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Abstract

The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus (S. carnosus) TM300 is an apathogenic staphylococcal species commonly used in meat starter cultures. As with all Gram-positive bacteria, its cytoplasmic membrane is surrounded by a thick peptidoglycan (PGN) or murein sacculus consisting of several layers of glycan strands cross-linked by peptides. In contrast to pathogenic staphylococci, mainly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), the chemical composition of S. carnosus PGN is not well studied so far. UPLC/MS analysis of enzymatically digested S. carnosus TM300 PGN revealed substantial differences in its composition compared to the known pattern of S. aureus. While in S. aureus the uncross-linked stem peptide consists of a pentapeptide, in S. carnosus, this part of the PGN is shortened to tripeptides. Furthermore, we found the PGN composition to vary when cells were incubated under certain conditions. The collective overproduction of HlyD, FtsE and FtsX—a putative protein complex interacting with penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2)—caused the reappearance of classical penta stem peptides. In addition, under high sugar conditions, tetra stem peptides occur due to overflow metabolism. This indicates that S. carnosus TM300 cells adapt to various conditions by modification of their PGN. View Full-Text
Keywords: S. carnosus; peptidoglycan; muropeptides; UPLC/MS; FtsEX; CcpA; carboxypeptidases S. carnosus; peptidoglycan; muropeptides; UPLC/MS; FtsEX; CcpA; carboxypeptidases
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Deibert, J.; Kühner, D.; Stahl, M.; Koeksoy, E.; Bertsche, U. The Peptidoglycan Pattern of Staphylococcus carnosus TM300—Detailed Analysis and Variations Due to Genetic and Metabolic Influences. Antibiotics 2016, 5, 33.

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