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Biosensors 2016, 6(2), 13; doi:10.3390/bios6020013

Infrared Spectroscopy of Bilberry Extract Water-in-Oil Emulsions: Sensing the Water-Oil Interface

1
Technische Thermodynamik, Universität Bremen, Badgasteiner Str. 1, Bremen 28359, Germany
2
Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91052, Germany
3
School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, UK
4
Section I: Food Process Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering in Life Sciences, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe 76131, Germany
5
Present affiliation: BASF SE, Ludwigshafen 67056, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Torsten Frosch
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Raman and IR Spectroscopic Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1769 KB, uploaded 14 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions are of great interest in many areas of the life sciences, including food technology, bioprocess engineering, and pharmaceuticals. Such emulsions are complex multi-component systems and the molecular mechanisms which lead to a stable emulsion are yet to be fully understood. In this work, attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy is applied to a series of w/o emulsions of an aqueous anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract dispersed in a medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil phase. The content of the emulsifier polyglycerin-polyricinoleat (PGPR) has been varied systematically in order to investigate whether or not its concentration has an impact on the molecular stabilization mechanisms. The molecular stabilization is accessed by a careful analysis of the IR spectrum, where changes in the vibrational frequencies and signal strengths indicate alterations of the molecular environment at the water/oil interface. The results suggest that adding emulsifier in excess of 1% by weight does not lead to an enhanced stabilization of the emulsion. View Full-Text
Keywords: MCT oil; hydrogen bonding; interfacial layer; vibrational spectroscopy; functional food; anthocyanin MCT oil; hydrogen bonding; interfacial layer; vibrational spectroscopy; functional food; anthocyanin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kiefer, J.; Frank, K.; Zehentbauer, F.M.; Schuchmann, H.P. Infrared Spectroscopy of Bilberry Extract Water-in-Oil Emulsions: Sensing the Water-Oil Interface. Biosensors 2016, 6, 13.

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