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Biosensors 2015, 5(2), 241-275; doi:10.3390/bios5020241

Modified Electrodes Used for Electrochemical Detection of Metal Ions in Environmental Analysis

1,†
,
2,†
and
3,†,*
1
Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France
2
Institute for Tropical Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, Vietnam
3
Chemistry Department, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086 CNRS, 15 rue J-A de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew M. Shaw
Received: 30 December 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors: Exploring the Field)

Abstract

Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; electrochemical sensors; stripping voltammetry; conducting polymers; DNA; enzymes; whole cells heavy metals; electrochemical sensors; stripping voltammetry; conducting polymers; DNA; enzymes; whole cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

March, G.; Nguyen, T.D.; Piro, B. Modified Electrodes Used for Electrochemical Detection of Metal Ions in Environmental Analysis. Biosensors 2015, 5, 241-275.

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