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Biosensors 2015, 5(1), 85-97; doi:10.3390/bios5010085

Label-Free Sensing of Adenosine Based on Force Variations Induced by Molecular Recognition

1
Hybrid Materials Interfaces Group, Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Bremen, Am Fallturm 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
2
Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology (UFT), University of Bremen, Leobener Str., 28359 Bremen, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew M. Shaw
Received: 9 January 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors: Exploring the Field)
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Abstract

We demonstrate a simple force-based label-free strategy for the highly sensitive sensing of adenosine. An adenosine ssDNA aptamer was bound onto an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe by covalent modification, and the molecular-interface adsorption force between the aptamer and a flat graphite surface was measured by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). In the presence of adenosine, the molecular recognition between adenosine and the aptamer resulted in the formation of a folded, hairpin-like DNA structure and hence caused a variation of the adsorption force at the graphite/water interface. The sensitive force response to molecular recognition provided an adenosine detection limit in the range of 0.1 to 1 nM. The addition of guanosine, cytidine, and uridine had no significant interference with the sensing of adenosine, indicating a strong selectivity of this sensor architecture. In addition, operational parameters that may affect the sensor, such as loading rate and solution ionic strength, were investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: label-free sensing; adenosine; AFM; single-molecule force spectroscopy; aptamer; molecular recognition label-free sensing; adenosine; AFM; single-molecule force spectroscopy; aptamer; molecular recognition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, J.; Li, Q.; Ciacchi, L.C.; Wei, G. Label-Free Sensing of Adenosine Based on Force Variations Induced by Molecular Recognition. Biosensors 2015, 5, 85-97.

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