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Biosensors 2012, 2(2), 189-204; doi:10.3390/bios2020189
Article

Peroxide-Dependent Analyte Conversion by the Heme Prosthetic Group, the Heme Peptide “Microperoxidase-11” and Cytochrome c on Chitosan Capped Gold Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

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Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, IBMT, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2012 / Revised: 3 May 2012 / Accepted: 9 May 2012 / Published: 14 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Based Biosensors)
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Abstract

In view of the role ascribed to the peroxidatic activity of degradation products of cytochrome c (cyt c) in the processes of apoptosis, we investigate the catalytic potential of heme and of the cyt c derived heme peptide MP-11 to catalyse the cathodic reduction of hydrogen peroxide and to oxidize aromatic compounds. In order to check whether cyt c has an enzymatic activity in the native state where the protein matrix should suppress the inherent peroxidatic activity of its heme prosthetic group, we applied a biocompatible immobilization matrix and very low concentrations of the co-substrate H2O2. The biocatalysts were entrapped on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode in a biocompatible chitosan layer which contained gold nanoparticles. The electrochemical signal for the peroxide reduction is generated by the redox conversion of the heme group, whilst a reaction product of the substrate oxidation is cathodically reduced in the substrate indication. The catalytic efficiency of microperoxidase-11 is sufficient for sensors indicating HRP substrates, e.g., p-aminophenol, paracetamol and catechol, but also the hydroxylation of aniline and dehalogenation of 4-fluoroaniline. The lower limit of detection for p-aminophenol is comparable to previously published papers with different enzyme systems. The peroxidatic activity of cyt c immobilized in the chitosan layer for catechol was found to be below 1 per mill and for p-aminophenol about 3% as compared with that of heme or MP-11.
Keywords: peroxide dependent catalysis; hemin; microperoxidase-11; cytochrome c peroxide dependent catalysis; hemin; microperoxidase-11; cytochrome c
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Yarman, A.; Neumann, B.; Bosserdt, M.; Gajovic-Eichelmann, N.; Scheller, F.W. Peroxide-Dependent Analyte Conversion by the Heme Prosthetic Group, the Heme Peptide “Microperoxidase-11” and Cytochrome c on Chitosan Capped Gold Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes. Biosensors 2012, 2, 189-204.

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