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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060393

Nanostructured Polymeric Materials with Protein-Repellent and Anti-Caries Properties for Dental Applications

1
Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China
2
Department of Advanced Oral Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
3
Department of Biomaterials Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
4
Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
5
VIP Integrated Department, Stomatological Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
6
Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
7
Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
8
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore County, MD 21250, USA
These authors contribute equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract

Dental caries is prevalent worldwide. Tooth cavity restorations cost more than $46 billion annually in the United States alone. The current generation of esthetic polymeric restorations have unsatisfactory failure rates. Replacing the failed restorations accounts for 50–70% of all the restorations. This article reviewed developments in producing a new generation of bioactive and therapeutic restorations. This includes: Protein-repellent and anti-caries polymeric dental composites, especially the use of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM); protein-repellent adhesives to greatly reduce biofilm acids; bioactive cements to inhibit tooth lesions; combining protein-repellency with antibacterial nanoparticles of silver; tooth surface coatings containing calcium phosphate nanoparticles for remineralization; therapeutic restorations to suppress periodontal pathogens; and long-term durability of bioactive and therapeutic dental polymers. MPC was chosen due to its strong ability to repel proteins. DMAHDM was selected because it had the most potent antibacterial activity when compared to a series of antibacterial monomers. The new generation of materials possessed potent antibacterial functions against cariogenic and periodontal pathogens, and reduced biofilm colony-forming units by up to 4 logs, provided calcium phosphate ions for remineralization and strengthening of tooth structures, and raised biofilm pH from a cariogenic pH 4.5 to a safe pH 6.5. The new materials achieved a long-term durability that was significantly beyond current commercial control materials. This new generation of bioactive and nanostructured polymers is promising for wide applications to provide therapeutic healing effects and greater longevity for dental restorations. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental restorations; polymer nanocomposites; protein-repellent; anti-biofilm; tooth mineral regeneration; caries inhibition dental restorations; polymer nanocomposites; protein-repellent; anti-biofilm; tooth mineral regeneration; caries inhibition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhang, N.; Zhang, K.; Xie, X.; Dai, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Imazato, S.; Al-Dulaijan, Y.A.; Al-Qarni, F.D.; Weir, M.D.; Reynolds, M.A.; Bai, Y.; Wang, L.; Xu, H.H.K. Nanostructured Polymeric Materials with Protein-Repellent and Anti-Caries Properties for Dental Applications. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 393.

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