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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040212

Antimicrobial Activity of Al2O3, CuO, Fe3O4, and ZnO Nanoparticles in Scope of Their Further Application in Cement-Based Building Materials

1
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Al. Piastow 50, 71-310 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Immunology, Microbiology and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Animal Husbandry, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Al. Piastów 45, 70-311 Szczecin, Poland
3
Nanomaterials Physicochemistry Department, Faculty of Technology and Chemical Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Al. Piastow 45, 70-311 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

Nanoparticles were proposed as antibacterial cement admixtures for the production of cement-based composites. Nevertheless, the standards for evaluation of such admixtures still do not indicate which model organisms to use, particularly in regard to the further application of material. Apart from the known toxicity of nanomaterials, in the case of cement-based composites there are limitations associated with the mixing and dispersion of nanomaterials. Therefore, four nanooxides (Al2O3, CuO, Fe3O4, and ZnO) and seven microorganisms were tested to initially evaluate the applicability of nanooxides in relation to their further use in cement-based composites. Studies of nanoparticles included chemical analysis, microbial growth kinetics, 4- and 24 h toxicity, and biofilm formation assay. Nanooxides showed toxicity against microorganisms in the used concentration, although the populations were able to re-grow. Furthermore, the effect of action was variable even between strains from the same genus. The effect of nanoparticles on biofilms depended on the used strain. Gathered results show several problems that can occur while studying nanoparticles for specific further application. Proper protocols for nanomaterial dispersion prior the preparation of cement-based composites, as well as a standardized approach for their testing, are the fundamental issues that have to be resolved to produce efficient composites. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanomaterials evaluation; microbial models; toxicity; metal oxides; cement-based composites nanomaterials evaluation; microbial models; toxicity; metal oxides; cement-based composites
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sikora, P.; Augustyniak, A.; Cendrowski, K.; Nawrotek, P.; Mijowska, E. Antimicrobial Activity of Al2O3, CuO, Fe3O4, and ZnO Nanoparticles in Scope of Their Further Application in Cement-Based Building Materials. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 212.

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