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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 261; doi:10.3390/nano7090261

Nanosilver–Silica Composite: Prolonged Antibacterial Effects and Bacterial Interaction Mechanisms for Wound Dressings

1
Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2
Microbiological Unit, Fish Diseases Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza 12618, Egypt
3
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Division of Veterinary Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
4
Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

Infected superficial wounds were traditionally controlled by topical antibiotics until the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Silver (Ag) is a kernel for alternative antibacterial agents to fight this resistance quandary. The present study demonstrates a method for immobilizing small-sized (~5 nm) silver nanoparticles on silica matrix to form a nanosilver–silica (Ag–SiO2) composite and shows the prolonged antibacterial effects of the composite in vitro. The composite exhibited a rapid initial Ag release after 24 h and a slower leaching after 48 and 72 h and was effective against both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation was superior to filter-sterilization in retaining the antibacterial effects of the composite, through the higher remaining Ag concentration. A gauze, impregnated with the Ag–SiO2 composite, showed higher antibacterial effects against MRSA and E. coli than a commercial Ag-containing dressing, indicating a potential for the management and infection control of superficial wounds. Transmission and scanning transmission electron microscope analyses of the composite-treated MRSA revealed an interaction of the released silver ions with the bacterial cytoplasmic constituents, causing ultimately the loss of bacterial membranes. The present results indicate that the Ag–SiO2 composite, with prolonged antibacterial effects, is a promising candidate for wound dressing applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver nanoparticles; silica; composite; prolonged silver leaching; antibacterial effects; mechanisms of action; wound dressings silver nanoparticles; silica; composite; prolonged silver leaching; antibacterial effects; mechanisms of action; wound dressings
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mosselhy, D.A.; Granbohm, H.; Hynönen, U.; Ge, Y.; Palva, A.; Nordström, K.; Hannula, S.-P. Nanosilver–Silica Composite: Prolonged Antibacterial Effects and Bacterial Interaction Mechanisms for Wound Dressings. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 261.

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